"УОК-т гуравдугаар сарын 1-нээс танхимын хичээлийг эхлүүлэх ёстой гэсэн санал байхгүй"

Дархлаажуулалтын явцад хүүхдүүдийг танхимаар хичээллүүлэх нь эрсдэлтэй гэж үзэж байгаа. Мөн сургуулийн танхимуудыг вакцинжуулах ажилд ашиглах талаар яригдаж байгаа ч эцэслэн шийдээгүй байна. Яам энэ асуудлыг дэмжихгүй байгаа. Вакцинжуулах ажлыг хэрхэн зохион байгуулахыг дараа нь танилцуулна. БШУЯ-наас гуравдугаар сарын 1-нээс хичээлийг танхимаар эхлүүлэх санал гаргаж байгаа. УОК болон Шадар сайд гуравдугаар сарын 1-нээс танхимын хичээлийг эхлүүлэх ёстой гэсэн санал байхгүй. Энэ асуудлыг Засгийн газрын өнөөдрийн хуралдаанаар хэлэлцэж байгаа" гэв. 


Та сэтгэгдэл бичихдээ хууль зүйн болон ёс суртахууныг баримтална уу. Ёс бус сэтгэгдлийг админ устгах эрхтэй. Мэдээний сэтгэгдэлд eagle.mn хариуцлага хүлээхгүй.

Сэтгэгдэл бичих (112)

  1. oruulahgvi baisnan deershde

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  2. Nogoon busiin aimguudiin hicheeliig oruulyaa

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  3. Хотдоо теле хичээлээ гаргаад халдваргүй ногоон бүсүүдээрээ танхимаар хичээллүүлэх хэрэгтэй

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  4. Ёооо манай олон нийт нээрээ тархиа бүрэн угаалгаад айдсаар тэжээгджээ хөөрхий, статистик эдр бол бүүр уншиж ойлгохгүй, за бид ч яахав болж л бн, хүүхдүүд чинь тэнэгэрлээ шүү!

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  5. Ер нь дэмий.Яг л томууний дэгдэлт таараад байна.Харин ч одоо 6 сар рүртэл албан ёсоор амралт зарлаад 6.7 сард хичээл орох нь зохимжтой.Хоцрогдол бол хамгийн муу багш 2 сар л тулхад арилдаг.

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    • 6,7 sard yj hicheel oruulah ymbee ymrch algaagushd har zunaar hucheeld yvna buhel buten udurjin suuna yj ym surhiin tm bzdee odoo oruulsan ni deeree

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    • үнэн шүү

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    • үнэн шүү

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    • yu yriad hutsad bga mal ee

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  6. Танхимаар оруулсан нь дээрээ хөдөө орон нутагууд ядаж ормоор бн халуунаа хэмжээд маскаа зүүгээд

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  7. Сургуулийн өмнөх бэлтгэл ангийн болон 1 р ангид орсон хүүхдүүд чинь бүр баларч дууслаа.Ямар ч шийдвэргүй бгаад байх юм хурдан зохион байгуулалтандаа ороочээ.Ядаж ногоон бүс болсон аймаг сумддууддаа чиг үүрэг өгч хичээл сургуулиа эхлүүлээчээ.

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  8. Хөл хорионоос болж эцэг эхээсээ жил гаран хол байгаа хүүхдийн хэд нь бэлгийн болон сэтгэлзүйн хүчирхийлэлд өртөж байгаа болоо!!! Цэцэрлэг сургуулийг нээмээр байна өглөө хүүхдээ хүргэж өгөөд орой ажлаа тараад хамтдаа гэртээ ирмээр байна, Хүүхдийн эрхийг зөрчиж байгаа ёс зүйгүй үйлдэлээ зогсоо #УОК. Сэтгүүлч нар ч гэсэн иймэрхүү тоон шинжилгээн дээр судалгаа гаргаж ажилмаар байна, сенсаци хөөхөө болимоор байнаа, хэдэн инфлүүнсрүүд нь ч гэсэн худлаа сэвэнэ

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  9. Yadaj tugsuh angiinhniiga tanhimaar oruulah talaar bodoltsmoo yuma! Ene jilin tugsuh anginhan ungursun jilin hicheelin suuri baihgui, tugsuh angin suuri baihgui yaj eysh ugch tugsguhgeed baidg yum boloo? Tugsuh angin huuhdud chn biye daagaad yavah hangalttai chadvartai gedgiig bodoltsmooe baina!

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  10. Yadaj tugsuh angiinhniiga tanhimaar oruulah talaar bodoltsmoo yuma! Ene jilin tugsuh anginhan ungursun jilin hicheelin suuri baihgui, tugsuh angin suuri baihgui yaj eysh ugch tugsguhgeed baidg yum boloo? Tugsuh angin huuhdud chn biye daagaad yavah hangalttai chadvartai gedgiig bodoltsmooe baina!

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  11. 「マザアライ」はここにリダイレクトします。クマにちなんで名付けられたモンゴルの衛星については、マザーライ(衛星)を参照してください。 Ursus arctos gobiensis Ursus arctos gobiensis.jpg 保全状況 絶滅危惧種(IUCN 3.1) 科学的分類 王国:動物界 門:脊索動物門 クラス:哺乳類 注文:食肉目 科:クマ科 属:クマ 種:U。arctos 亜種:U。a。ゴビエンシス 三位一体名 Ursus arctos gobiensis ソコロフ&オルロフ、1920年 ゴビクマ(Ursus arctos gobiensis;モンゴルではMazaalai(azaазаалай)として知られている)は、モンゴルのゴビ砂漠で見つかったヒグマ(Ursus arctos)の亜種であり、モンゴルのレッドブックによって絶滅の危機に瀕していると記載されています。絶滅危惧種およびロンドン動物学会による[1] 2009年の人口は約30人の成人のみであり[2]、他のヒグマの集団から十分な距離を置いて生殖隔離を達成している[3]。 内容 1行動と生態学 2遺伝的多様性 3研究 4関連項目 5参考文献 5.1出典 6さらに読む 行動と生態学 ゴビクマは主に根、果実、その他の植物、時にはげっ歯類を食べます。彼らが大型哺乳類を捕食しているという証拠はありません。他のヒグマ亜種と比較して小さいため、成体のオスの体重は約96.0〜138.0 kg(211.6〜304.2ポンド)、メスの体重は約51.0〜78.0 kg(112.4〜172.0ポンド)です。[3] 遺伝的多様性 ゴビクマは遺伝的多様性がほとんどなく[2]、ヒグマの亜種でこれまでに観察された中で最も低いものの1つです。ゴビクマと同様の遺伝的多様性のレベルは、スペインとフランスの国境にあるピレネー山脈のヒグマの少数の個体群でのみ報告されています。 研究 形態に基づいて、ゴビヒグマは歴史的にチベットのヒグマと同じ亜種であると分類されることがありました。しかし、最近の系統発生分析では、ゴビクマがヒマラヤのヒグマの遺棄された個体群を表すことが示されています。[4]野生に残っているゴビクマは40頭未満です。[5] も参照してください くま 参考文献 「特別な保護のために選ばれた33品種の中のチンパンジー」。 BBC。 2017年10月28日。2017年10月30日取得。 Odbayar Tumendemberel;マイケルプロクター;ハリーレイノルズ;ジョン・ブーランガー; Amgalan Luvsamjamba; Tuya Tserenbataa; Mijiddorj Batmunkh;デレク・クレイグヘッド;ニャンバヤル塩津;デビッド・パートコー(2010)。 「ゴビクマの豊度とオアシス間の動き、モンゴルのゴビ砂漠」(PDF)。ウルサス。 26(2):129–142。土井:10.2192 /URSUS-D-15-00001.1。 「モンゴルのゴビクマ保護」(PDF)。 2010年7月。2016年3月19日取得。 LanT。;ギルS。;ベルメインE。; BischofR。; Zawaz M.A。; Lindqvist C.(2017)。 「チベット高原-ヒマラヤ地域の謎めいたクマの進化の歴史とイエティのアイデンティティ」。王立協会の議事録B:生物科学。 284(1868):20171804。doi:10.1098 /rspb.2017.1804。 PMC5740279。PMID29187630。 https://www.gobibearproject.org ソース チャドウィック、ダグラス(2014年4月)。 「世界で最も希少なクマを救うことはできますか?」ナショナル・ジオグラフィック。ジョー・リース(写真)。 「ゴビクマ(Ursus arctos gobiensis)」。ワイルドスクリーンArkive。 2008年9月19日にオリジナルからアーカイブされました。 2017年8月21日取得。 マッカーシー、トーマスM。;待って、リゼットP。; Mijiddorj、B。(2009)。 「非侵襲的遺伝的方法によって決定されたモンゴルのゴビクマの状態」。ウルサス。 20(1):30–38。土井:10.2192 /07/GR013R.1。 参考文献 チャドウィック、ダグラス(2017)。ゴビグリズリーズの追跡:Beyond the Back ofBeyondを超えて生き残る。ジョー・リースとダグラス・チャドウィック(写真)。ベンチュラ、カリフォルニア州:パタゴニアの本。 ISBN9781938340628。OCLC984164885。プレビュー。 vte ヒグマの亜種または個体群 王国:AnimaliaPhylum:ChordataClass:MammaliaOrder:CarnivoraFamily:UrsidaeGenus:UrsusSpecies:arctos 旧世界 アトラスクマとして(U.a。Crowtheri)†Steppeヒグマ(U.a。Priscus) ユーラシアヒグマ (暫定的にU.a。arctos) アジアで カムチャトカンヒグマ(暫定U. a。ベリンギアヌス)東シベリアヒグマ(暫定U. a。コラリス)ゴビクマ(暫定U. a。ゴビエンシス)ヒマラヤヒグマ(暫定U. a。イザベリヌス)ウスリヒグマ(暫定U. 。a。lasiotus)シリアのヒグマ(暫定的にU.a。syriacus)チベットのヒグマ(暫定的にU.a。pruinosus) ヨーロッパで マルシカヒグマ(仮称U.a。Marsicanus)カンタブリアンヒグマ(旧称U.a。Pyrenaicus) 新世界 ハイイログマ (暫定的にU.a。horribilis) Grカリフォルニアハイイログマ(旧U.a。Californicus)†メキシコハイイログマ(旧U.a。Nelsoni) アラスカで ダル島ヒグマ(旧U.a。Dalli)半島の巨大クマ(暫定U.a。Gyas)コディアックヒグマ(旧U.a。Middendorffi)シトカヒグマ(旧U.a。Sitkensis;ハイブリッド)[a] カナダで Stickeenヒグマ(暫定的にU.a。Stikeenensis)†Ungavaヒグマ(以前のU.a。Ungavaesis) 遺伝子検査は、このクマがヒグマとホッキョクグマの祖先を混合していることを示しています。 分類群識別子 ウィキデータ:Q1533533ARKive:ursus-arctos-gobiensis スタブアイコン食肉目に関するこの記事はスタブです。あなたはウィキペディアを助けることができます

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  12. Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females,[1][2][3] or to more than one sex or gender.[4] It may also be defined as romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity, which is also known as pansexuality.[5][6][7] The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women,[1][2][8] and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum. A bisexual identity does not necessarily equate to equal sexual attraction to both sexes; commonly, people who have a distinct but not exclusive sexual preference for one sex over the other also identify themselves as bisexual.[9] Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences,[10][11][12] and do not view it as a choice.[10][11][13] Although no single theory on the cause of sexual orientation has yet gained widespread support, scientists favor biologically based theories.[10] There is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial, biological causes of sexual orientation than social ones, especially for males.[3][8][14] Bisexuality has been observed in various human societies[15] and elsewhere in the animal kingdom[16][17][18] throughout recorded history. The term bisexuality, however, like the terms hetero- and homosexuality, was coined in the 19th century.[19]

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  13. Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender. As a sexual orientation, heterosexuality is "an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions" to persons of the opposite sex; it "also refers to a person's sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions."[1][2] Someone who is heterosexual is commonly referred to as straight. Along with bisexuality and homosexuality, heterosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.[1] Across cultures, most people are heterosexual, and heterosexual activity is by far the most common type of sexual activity.[3][4] Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences,[5][6][7] and do not view it as a choice.[5][6][8] Although no single theory on the cause of sexual orientation has yet gained widespread support, scientists favor biologically-based theories.[5] There is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial, biological causes of sexual orientation than social ones, especially for males.[3][9][10] The term heterosexual or heterosexuality is usually applied to humans, but heterosexual behavior is observed in all other mammals and in other animals, as it is necessary for sexual reproduction.

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  14. yaanaa bid nar ahlah angi bj barg hvrd ee marttsn suuj bn breakdancer

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    • yag zuv mini huu 1-1=1 breaksinger

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  15. Asexuality is the lack of sexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual activity.[1][2][3] It may be considered a sexual orientation or the lack thereof.[4][5] It may also be categorized more widely to include a broad spectrum of asexual sub-identities.[6] Asexuality is distinct from abstention from sexual activity and from celibacy,[7][8] which are behavioral and generally motivated by factors such as an individual's personal, social, or religious beliefs.[9] Sexual orientation, unlike sexual behavior, is believed to be "enduring".[10] Some asexual people engage in sexual activity despite lacking sexual attraction or a desire for sex, due to a variety of reasons, such as a desire to pleasure themselves or romantic partners, or a desire to have children.[7][11] Acceptance of asexuality as a sexual orientation and field of scientific research is still relatively new,[2][11] as a growing body of research from both sociological and psychological perspectives has begun to develop.[11] While some researchers assert that asexuality is a sexual orientation, other researchers disagree.[4][5] Various asexual communities have started to form since the advent of the Internet and social media. The most prolific and well-known of these communities is the Asexual Visibility and Education Network, which was founded in 2001 by David Jay.[4][12]

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  16. Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.[1] As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is "an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions" to people of the same sex. It "also refers to a person's sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions."[2][3] Along with bisexuality and heterosexuality, homosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.[2] Scientists do not yet know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences[4][5][6] and do not view it as a choice.[4][5][7] Although no single theory on the cause of sexual orientation has yet gained widespread support, scientists favor biologically-based theories.[4] There is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial, biological causes of sexual orientation than social ones, especially for males.[8][9][10] There is no substantive evidence which suggests parenting or early childhood experiences play a role with regard to sexual orientation.[11] While some people believe that homosexual activity is unnatural,[12] scientific research shows that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation in human sexuality and is not in and of itself a source of negative psychological effects.[2][13] There is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation.[14][15] The most common terms for homosexual people are lesbian for females and gay for males, but the term gay also commonly refers to both homosexual females and males. The percentage of people who are gay or lesbian and the proportion of people who are in same-sex romantic relationships or have had same-sex sexual experiences are difficult for researchers to estimate reliably for a variety of reasons, including many gay and lesbian people not openly identifying as such due to prejudice or discrimination such as homophobia and heterosexism.[16] Homosexual behavior has also been documented in many non-human animal species,[22] though homosexual orientation is not significantly observed in other animals.[16] Many gay and lesbian people are in committed same-sex relationships, though only in the 2010s have census forms and political conditions facilitated their visibility and enumeration.[23] These relationships are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential psychological respects.[3] Homosexual relationships and acts have been admired, as well as condemned, throughout recorded history, depending on the form they took and the culture in which they occurred.[24] Since the end of the 20th century, there has been a global movement towards freedom and equality for gay people, including the introduction of anti-bullying legislation to protect gay children at school, legislation ensuring non-discrimination, equal ability to serve in the military, equal access to health care, equal ability to adopt and parent, and the establishment of marriage equality.

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  17. ehluul2 pzda nuruu hoshlo

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    • yag zuv aga

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  18. Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex.[1][2] Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent. The gametes produced by an organism define its sex: males produce small gametes (e.g. spermatozoa, or sperm, in animals) while females produce large gametes (ova, or egg cells). Individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic.[2][3] Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogamy), but, in many cases, an asymmetry has evolved such that two different types of gametes (heterogametes) exist (known as anisogamy).[4][5] Physical differences are often associated with the different sexes of an organism; these sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience. For instance, mate choice and sexual selection can accelerate the evolution of physical differences between the sexes. Among humans and other mammals, males typically carry an X and a Y chromosome (XY), whereas females typically carry two X chromosomes (XX), which are a part of the XY sex-determination system. Other animals have various sex-determination systems, such as the ZW system in birds, the X0 system in insects, and various environmental systems, for example in reptiles and crustaceans. Fungi may also have more complex allelic mating systems, with sexes not accurately described as male, female, or hermaphroditic.[6]

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  19. beltgel angi orhim bolvu

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  20. 12 1 9 angi oruulaaa

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  21. Ядаж ахлах ангийхныг танхимаар оруулаачээ!!!!!!! Чанаргүй цаг үрсэн теле хичээл үзэж суусаар нүдний хараа муудаж бие хөшиж үхлээ!!!!! Томчууд хийхгүй болхоор бидний зовлонг яаж мэдэхвээ дээ!!!

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  22. Huuushee baga angiha tele hichelin surgalta sain saijruulad ahlah angiin huuhduudin hicheelig ehluuleechee! Odo bur medrel muutai bllo

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  23. アーサー・フィリップが率いるシドニーは、オーストラリアで最初のヨーロッパ人の入植地であるイギリスの流刑地として設立されました。フィリップは、トーマス・タウンゼンド、第1子爵シドニーにちなんで和解に名前を付けた。[12]ニューサウスウェールズ州への流罪は、1842年にシドニーが都市として法人化された直後に終了しました。1851年にコロニーでゴールドラッシュが発生し、次の世紀にシドニーは植民地時代の前哨基地から主要な世界の文化経済の中心地に変わりました。第二次世界大戦後、大規模な移住を経験し、世界で最も多文化的な都市の1つになりました。[3] 2011年の国勢調査の時点で、シドニーでは250を超える異なる言語が話されていました。[13] 2016年の国勢調査では、居住者の約35.8%が自宅で英語以外の言語を話しました。[14]さらに、人口の45.4%が海外で生まれたと報告しており、この都市はロンドンとニューヨーク市に次いで世界で3番目に多い外国生まれの人口を持っています。[15] [16] 世界で最も高価な都市の1つであるにもかかわらず、[17]シドニーは、世界で最も住みやすい都市のトップ10に入ることがよくあります。[18] [19] [20]グローバリゼーションと世界都市研究ネットワークによってアルファグローバルシティとして分類されており、この地域および世界中での影響力を示しています。[21] [22]経済的機会で世界第11位にランクされている[23]シドニーは、金融、製造、観光に強みを持つ高度な市場経済を持っています。[24] [25]シドニーには外国銀行や多国籍企業がかなり集中しており、オーストラリアの金融資本であり、アジア太平洋地域の主要な金融ハブの1つとして宣伝されています。[26] [27] 1850年に設立されたシドニー大学は、オーストラリアで最初の大学であり、世界をリードする大学の1つと見なされています。[28]シドニーには、オーストラリアで最も古い図書館であるニューサウスウェールズ州立図書館が1826年に開館しました。[29] シドニーは、2000年夏季オリンピックなどの主要な国際スポーツイベントを主催してきました。この都市は、世界で最も訪問されている都市のトップ15のひとつであり[30]、毎年何百万人もの観光客が都市のランドマークを見に来ています。[31] 1,000,000ヘクタール(2,500,000エーカー)以上の自然保護区と公園を誇る[32]、その注目すべき自然の特徴には、シドニーハーバー、王立国立公園、王立植物園、国内最古の公園であるハイドパークがあります。[33]シドニーハーバーブリッジや世界遺産に登録されているシドニーオペラハウスなどの建造物も、海外からの訪問者によく知られています。首都圏にサービスを提供する主要な旅客空港は、世界で最も古い継続的に運営されている空港の1つであるキングスフォード-スミス空港です。[34] 1906年に設立された中央駅は、州で最大かつ最も忙しい鉄道駅であり、市内の鉄道網の主要なハブです。[35] 内容 1歴史 1.1最初の住民 1.2コロニーの確立 1.2.1競合 1.3現代の開発 1.3.119世紀 1.3.2 20世紀–現在 2地理 2.1地形 2.2地質 2.3エコロジー 2.4気候 3つの地域 3.1郊外 3.1.1インナーウェスト 3.2東部郊外 3.3シドニー南部 3.4シドニー北部 3.5ヒルズ地区 3.6西部郊外 4都市構造 4.1アーキテクチャ 4.2住宅 4.3公園とオープンスペース 5経済 5.1企業市民 5.2家政学 5.3金融サービス 5.4製造 5.5観光と国際教育 6人口統計 6.1祖先と移民 6.2言語 6.3宗教 6.4犯罪 7文化 7.1科学、芸術、歴史 7.2エンターテインメント 7.3メディア 8スポーツおよびアウトドアアクティビティ 8.1注目すべきスポーツ会場 9政府 9.1歴史的ガバナンス 9.2現在の政府 10インフラストラクチャ 10.1教育 10.2健康 10.3輸送 10.3.1道路 10.3.2バス 10.3.3路面電車とライトレール 10.3.4列車 10.3.5フェリー 10.3.6空港 10.4環境問題と汚染削減 10.5ユーティリティ 11関連項目 12メモ 13参考文献 14外部リンク 歴史 主な記事:シドニーの歴史とシドニーのタイムライン 最初の住民 ヒースコート国立公園のカンガルーの木炭画。 現在シドニーとして知られている地域に最初に住んだ人々は、オーストラリア北部から、そしてその前に東南アジアから移住した先住民族のオーストラリア人でした。放射性炭素年代測定は、約30、000年前からシドニー地域での人間活動の証拠を示していますが、[36]シドニー西部の砂利堆積物で見つかったアボリジニの石器は、45、000年から50、000年前までこの地域に人間の居住地があったことを示しています。 [37] 先住民とイギリス人との最初の出会いは、1770年4月29日、ジェームズ・クック中尉がカーネル半島のボタニー湾に上陸し、グウィーガル氏族に遭遇したときに起こりました。[38] [39] [40]彼は彼の日記の中で、彼らは混乱していて、外国人の訪問者に対して幾分敵対的であると述べた。クックは探検の使命を帯びており、入植を開始するように依頼されていませんでした。彼は続ける前に食物を集めて科学的観察を行うのに短い時間を費やしました Āsā Firippu ga hikiiru shidonī wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no yōroppa hito no nyūshoku-chidearu Igirisu no ryūkeichi to shite setsuritsu sa remashita. Firippu wa, tōmasu taunzendo, dai 1 shishaku shidonī ni chinande wakai ni namae o tsuketa. [12] Nyūsausuu~ēruzu-shū e no ruzai wa, 1842-nen ni shidonī ga toshi to shite hōjin-ka sa reta chokugo ni shūryō shimashita. 1851-Nen ni koronī de gōrudorasshu ga hassei shi,-ji no seiki ni shidonī wa shokuminchi jidai no zenshō kichi kara shuyōna sekai no bunka keizai no chūshinchi ni kawarimashita. Dainijisekaitaisengo, ōkibona ijū o keiken shi, sekai de mottomo tabunkatekina toshi no 1tsu ni narimashita. [3 ] 2011-Nen no kokuseichōsa no jiten de, shidonīde wa 250 wokoeru kotonaru gengo ga hanasa rete imashita. [13] 2016-Nen no kokuseichōsade wa, kyojū-sha no yaku 35. 8-Pāsento ga jitaku de eigoigai no gengo o hanashimashita. [14] Sarani, jinkō no 45. 4-Pāsento ga kaigai de umareta to hōkoku shite ori, kono toshi wa Rondon to nyūyōku ichi ni tsuide sekai de 3-banme ni ōi gaikoku umare no jinkō o motte imasu. [15] [16] Sekai de mottomo kōkana toshi no 1tsudearu nimokakawarazu,[17] shidonī wa, sekai de mottomo sumi yasui toshi no toppu 10 ni hairu koto ga yoku arimasu. [18] [19] [20] Gurōbarizēshon to sekai toshi kenkyū nettowāku ni yotte arufagurōbarushiti to shite bunrui sa rete ori, kono chiiki oyobi sekaijū de no eikyō-ryoku o shimeshite imasu. [21] [22] Keizai-teki kikai de sekai dai 11-i ni ranku sa rete iru [23] shidonī wa, kin'yū, seizō, kankō ni tsuyomi o motsu kōdona shijōkeisei o motte imasu. [24] [25] Shidonī ni wa gaikoku ginkō ya takokusekikigyō ga kanari shūchū shite ori, ōsutoraria no kin'yū shihondeari, ajiataiheiyō chiiki no shuyōna kin'yū habu no 1tsu to shite senden sa rete imasu. [26] [27] 1850-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta shidonī daigaku wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no daigakudeari, sekai o rīdo suru daigaku no 1tsu to minasa rete imasu. [28] Shidonī ni wa, ōsutoraria de mottomo furui toshokandearu nyūsausuu~ēruzu shūritsu toshokan ga 1826-nen ni kaikan shimashita. [29] Shidonī wa, 2000-nen kaki orinpikku nado no shuyōna kokusai supōtsuibento o shusai shite kimashita. Kono toshi wa, sekai de mottomo hōmon sa rete iru toshi no toppu 15 no hitotsudeari [30], maitoshi nan hyaku man-ri mo no kankōkyaku ga toshi no randomāku o mi ni kite imasu. [31] 1, 000, 000 Hekutāru (2 , 500, 000 ēkā) ijō no shizen hogo-ku to kōen o hokoru [32], sono chūmoku subeki shizen no tokuchō ni wa, shidonīhābā, ōritsu kokuritsu kōen, ōritsu shokubutsu-en, kokunai saiko no kōendearu haidopāku ga arimasu. [33] Shidonīhābāburijji ya seikaiisan ni tōroku sa rete iru shidonīoperahausu nado no kenzōbutsu mo, kaigai kara no hōmon-sha ni yoku shira rete imasu. Shutoken ni sābisu o teikyō suru shuyōna ryokaku kūkō wa, sekai de mottomo furui keizoku-teki ni un'ei sa rete iru kūkō no 1tsudearu kingusufōdo - Sumisu kūkōdesu. [34] 1906-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta Chūō-eki wa,-shū de saidai katsu mottomo isogashī tetsudō-ekideari, shinai no tetsudō-mō no shuyōna habudesu. [35] Naiyō 1 rekishi 1. 1 Saisho no jūmin 1. 2 Koronī no kakuritsu 1. 2. 1 Kyōgō 1. 3 Gendai no kaihatsu 1. 3. 119 Seiki 1. 3. 2 20 Seiki – genzai 2 chiri 2. 1 Chikei 2. 2 Chishitsu 2. 3 Ekorojī 2. 4 Kikō 3ttsu no chiiki 3. 1 Kōgai 3. 1. 1 In'nāu~esuto 3. 2 Tōbu kōgai 3. 3 Shidonī nanbu 3. 4 Shidonī hokubu 3. 5 Hiruzu chiku 3. 6 Seibu kōgai 4 toshi kōzō 4. 1 Ākitekucha 4. 2 Jūtaku 4. 3 Kōen to ōpunsupēsu 5 keizai 5. 1 Kigyō shimin 5. 2 Kaseigaku 5. 3 Kin'yū sābisu 5. 4 Seizō 5. 5 Kankō to kokusai kyōiku 6 jinkō tōkei 6. 1 Sosen to imin 6. 2 Gengo 6. 3 Shūkyō 6. 4 Hanzai 7 bunka 7. 1 Kagaku, geijutsu, rekishi 7. 2 Entāteinmento 7. 3 Media 8 supōtsu oyobi autodoākutibiti 8. 1 Chūmoku subeki supōtsu kaijō 9 seifu 9. 1 Rekishi-teki gabanansu 9. 2 Genzai no seifu 10 infurasutorakucha 10. 1 Kyōiku 10. 2 Kenkō 10. 3 Yusō 10. 3. 1 Dōro 10. 3. 2 Basu 10. 3. 3 Romen densha to raitorēru 10. 3. 4 Ressha 10. 3. 5 Ferī 10. 3. 6 Kūkō 10. 4 Kankyōmondai to osen sakugen 10. 5 Yūtiriti 11 kanren kōmoku 12 memo 13 sankō bunken 14 gaibu rinku rekishi omona kiji: Shidonī no rekishi to shidonī no taimu rain saisho no jūmin hīsukōto kokuritsu kōen no kangarū no mokutan-ga. Genzai shidonī to shite shira rete iru chiiki ni saisho ni sunda hitobito wa, ōsutoraria hokubu kara, soshite sono zen ni tōnan'ajia kara ijū shita senjūmin-zoku no ōsutoraria hitodeshita. Hōshasei tanso nendai sokutei wa, yaku 30, 000-nen mae kara shidonī chiiki de no ningen katsudō no shōko o shimeshite imasuga,[36] shidonī seibu no jari taiseki-mono de mitsukatta aborijini no sekki wa, 45, 000-nen kara 50, 000-nen mae made kono chiiki ni ningen no oyaji ga atta koto o shimeshite imasu. [37] Senjūmin to igirisuhito to no saisho no deai wa, 1770-nen 4 tsuki 29-nichi, jēmuzu Kukku chūi ga kāneru hantō no botanī-wan ni jōriku shi, guu~īgaru shizoku ni sōgū shita toki ni okorimashita. [38] [39] [40] Kare wa kare no nikki no naka de, karera wa konran shite ite, gaikoku hito no hōmon-sha ni taishite ikubun tekitai-tekidearu to nobeta. Kukku wa tanken no shimei o obite ori, nyūshoku o kaishi suru yō ni irai sa rete imasendeshita. Kare wa tsudzukeru mae ni shokumotsu o atsumete kagaku-teki kansatsu o okonau no ni mijikai jikan o tsuiyashimashita Show moreアーサー・フィリップが率いるシドニーは、オーストラリアで最初のヨーロッパ人の入植地であるイギリスの流刑地として設立されました。フィリップは、トーマス・タウンゼンド、第1子爵シドニーにちなんで和解に名前を付けた。[12]ニューサウスウェールズ州への流罪は、1842年にシドニーが都市として法人化された直後に終了しました。1851年にコロニーでゴールドラッシュが発生し、次の世紀にシドニーは植民地時代の前哨基地から主要な世界の文化経済の中心地に変わりました。第二次世界大戦後、大規模な移住を経験し、世界で最も多文化的な都市の1つになりました。[3] 2011年の国勢調査の時点で、シドニーでは250を超える異なる言語が話されていました。[13] 2016年の国勢調査では、居住者の約35.8%が自宅で英語以外の言語を話しました。[14]さらに、人口の45.4%が海外で生まれたと報告しており、この都市はロンドンとニューヨーク市に次いで世界で3番目に多い外国生まれの人口を持っています。[15] [16] 世界で最も高価な都市の1つであるにもかかわらず、[17]シドニーは、世界で最も住みやすい都市のトップ10に入ることがよくあります。[18] [19] [20]グローバリゼーションと世界都市研究ネットワークによってアルファグローバルシティとして分類されており、この地域および世界中での影響力を示しています。[21] [22]経済的機会で世界第11位にランクされている[23]シドニーは、金融、製造、観光に強みを持つ高度な市場経済を持っています。[24] [25]シドニーには外国銀行や多国籍企業がかなり集中しており、オーストラリアの金融資本であり、アジア太平洋地域の主要な金融ハブの1つとして宣伝されています。[26] [27] 1850年に設立されたシドニー大学は、オーストラリアで最初の大学であり、世界をリードする大学の1つと見なされています。[28]シドニーには、オーストラリアで最も古い図書館であるニューサウスウェールズ州立図書館が1826年に開館しました。[29] シドニーは、2000年夏季オリンピックなどの主要な国際スポーツイベントを主催してきました。この都市は、世界で最も訪問されている都市のトップ15のひとつであり[30]、毎年何百万人もの観光客が都市のランドマークを見に来ています。[31] 1,000,000ヘクタール(2,500,000エーカー)以上の自然保護区と公園を誇る[32]、その注目すべき自然の特徴には、シドニーハーバー、王立国立公園、王立植物園、国内最古の公園であるハイドパークがあります。[33]シドニーハーバーブリッジや世界遺産に登録されているシドニーオペラハウスなどの建造物も、海外からの訪問者によく知られています。首都圏にサービスを提供する主要な旅客空港は、世界で最も古い継続的に運営されている空港の1つであるキングスフォード-スミス空港です。[34] 1906年に設立された中央駅は、州で最大かつ最も忙しい鉄道駅であり、市内の鉄道網の主要なハブです。[35] 内容 1歴史 1.1最初の住民 1.2コロニーの確立 1.2.1競合 1.3現代の開発 1.3.119世紀 1.3.2 20世紀–現在 2地理 2.1地形 2.2地質 2.3エコロジー 2.4気候 3つの地域 3.1郊外 3.1.1インナーウェスト 3.2東部郊外 3.3シドニー南部 3.4シドニー北部 3.5ヒルズ地区 3.6西部郊外 4都市構造 4.1アーキテクチャ 4.2住宅 4.3公園とオープンスペース 5経済 5.1企業市民 5.2家政学 5.3金融サービス 5.4製造 5.5観光と国際教育 6人口統計 6.1祖先と移民 6.2言語 6.3宗教 6.4犯罪 7文化 7.1科学、芸術、歴史 7.2エンターテインメント 7.3メディア 8スポーツおよびアウトドアアクティビティ 8.1注目すべきスポーツ会場 9政府 9.1歴史的ガバナンス 9.2現在の政府 10インフラストラクチャ 10.1教育 10.2健康 10.3輸送 10.3.1道路 10.3.2バス 10.3.3路面電車とライトレール 10.3.4列車 10.3.5フェリー 10.3.6空港 10.4環境問題と汚染削減 10.5ユーティリティ 11関連項目 12メモ 13参考文献 14外部リンク 歴史 主な記事:シドニーの歴史とシドニーのタイムライン 最初の住民 ヒースコート国立公園のカンガルーの木炭画。 現在シドニーとして知られている地域に最初に住んだ人々は、オーストラリア北部から、そしてその前に東南アジアから移住した先住民族のオーストラリア人でした。放射性炭素年代測定は、約30、000年前からシドニー地域での人間活動の証拠を示していますが、[36]シドニー西部の砂利堆積物で見つかったアボリジニの石器は、45、000年から50、000年前までこの地域に人間の居住地があったことを示しています。 [37] 先住民とイギリス人との最初の出会いは、1770年4月29日、ジェームズ・クック中尉がカーネル半島のボタニー湾に上陸し、グウィーガル氏族に遭遇したときに起こりました。[38] [39] [40]彼は彼の日記の中で、彼らは混乱していて、外国人の訪問者に対して幾分敵対的であると述べた。クックは探検の使命を帯びており、入植を開始するように依頼されていませんでした。彼は続ける前に食物を集めて科学的観察を行うのに短い時間を費やしました Āsā Firippu ga hikiiru shidonī wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no yōroppa hito no nyūshoku-chidearu Igirisu no ryūkeichi to shite setsuritsu sa remashita. Firippu wa, tōmasu taunzendo, dai 1 shishaku shidonī ni chinande wakai ni namae o tsuketa. [12] Nyūsausuu~ēruzu-shū e no ruzai wa, 1842-nen ni shidonī ga toshi to shite hōjin-ka sa reta chokugo ni shūryō shimashita. 1851-Nen ni koronī de gōrudorasshu ga hassei shi,-ji no seiki ni shidonī wa shokuminchi jidai no zenshō kichi kara shuyōna sekai no bunka keizai no chūshinchi ni kawarimashita. Dainijisekaitaisengo, ōkibona ijū o keiken shi, sekai de mottomo tabunkatekina toshi no 1tsu ni narimashita. [3 ] 2011-Nen no kokuseichōsa no jiten de, shidonīde wa 250 wokoeru kotonaru gengo ga hanasa rete imashita. [13] 2016-Nen no kokuseichōsade wa, kyojū-sha no yaku 35. 8-Pāsento ga jitaku de eigoigai no gengo o hanashimashita. [14] Sarani, jinkō no 45. 4-Pāsento ga kaigai de umareta to hōkoku shite ori, kono toshi wa Rondon to nyūyōku ichi ni tsuide sekai de 3-banme ni ōi gaikoku umare no jinkō o motte imasu. [15] [16] Sekai de mottomo kōkana toshi no 1tsudearu nimokakawarazu,[17] shidonī wa, sekai de mottomo sumi yasui toshi no toppu 10 ni hairu koto ga yoku arimasu. [18] [19] [20] Gurōbarizēshon to sekai toshi kenkyū nettowāku ni yotte arufagurōbarushiti to shite bunrui sa rete ori, kono chiiki oyobi sekaijū de no eikyō-ryoku o shimeshite imasu. [21] [22] Keizai-teki kikai de sekai dai 11-i ni ranku sa rete iru [23] shidonī wa, kin'yū, seizō, kankō ni tsuyomi o motsu kōdona shijōkeisei o motte imasu. [24] [25] Shidonī ni wa gaikoku ginkō ya takokusekikigyō ga kanari shūchū shite ori, ōsutoraria no kin'yū shihondeari, ajiataiheiyō chiiki no shuyōna kin'yū habu no 1tsu to shite senden sa rete imasu. [26] [27] 1850-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta shidonī daigaku wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no daigakudeari, sekai o rīdo suru daigaku no 1tsu to minasa rete imasu. [28] Shidonī ni wa, ōsutoraria de mottomo furui toshokandearu nyūsausuu~ēruzu shūritsu toshokan ga 1826-nen ni kaikan shimashita. [29] Shidonī wa, 2000-nen kaki orinpikku nado no shuyōna kokusai supōtsuibento o shusai shite kimashita. Kono toshi wa, sekai de mottomo hōmon sa rete iru toshi no toppu 15 no hitotsudeari [30], maitoshi nan hyaku man-ri mo no kankōkyaku ga toshi no randomāku o mi ni kite imasu. [31] 1, 000, 000 Hekutāru (2 , 500, 000 ēkā) ijō no shizen hogo-ku to kōen o hokoru [32], sono chūmoku subeki shizen no tokuchō ni wa, shidonīhābā, ōritsu kokuritsu kōen, ōritsu shokubutsu-en, kokunai saiko no kōendearu haidopāku ga arimasu. [33] Shidonīhābāburijji ya seikaiisan ni tōroku sa rete iru shidonīoperahausu nado no kenzōbutsu mo, kaigai kara no hōmon-sha ni yoku shira rete imasu. Shutoken ni sābisu o teikyō suru shuyōna ryokaku kūkō wa, sekai de mottomo furui keizoku-teki ni un'ei sa rete iru kūkō no 1tsudearu kingusufōdo - Sumisu kūkōdesu. [34] 1906-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta Chūō-eki wa,-shū de saidai katsu mottomo isogashī tetsudō-ekideari, shinai no tetsudō-mō no shuyōna habudesu. [35] Naiyō 1 rekishi 1. 1 Saisho no jūmin 1. 2 Koronī no kakuritsu 1. 2. 1 Kyōgō 1. 3 Gendai no kaihatsu 1. 3. 119 Seiki 1. 3. 2 20 Seiki – genzai 2 chiri 2. 1 Chikei 2. 2 Chishitsu 2. 3 Ekorojī 2. 4 Kikō 3ttsu no chiiki 3. 1 Kōgai 3. 1. 1 In'nāu~esuto 3. 2 Tōbu kōgai 3. 3 Shidonī nanbu 3. 4 Shidonī hokubu 3. 5 Hiruzu chiku 3. 6 Seibu kōgai 4 toshi kōzō 4. 1 Ākitekucha 4. 2 Jūtaku 4. 3 Kōen to ōpunsupēsu 5 keizai 5. 1 Kigyō shimin 5. 2 Kaseigaku 5. 3 Kin'yū sābisu 5. 4 Seizō 5. 5 Kankō to kokusai kyōiku 6 jinkō tōkei 6. 1 Sosen to imin 6. 2 Gengo 6. 3 Shūkyō 6. 4 Hanzai 7 bunka 7. 1 Kagaku, geijutsu, rekishi 7. 2 Entāteinmento 7. 3 Media 8 supōtsu oyobi autodoākutibiti 8. 1 Chūmoku subeki supōtsu kaijō 9 seifu 9. 1 Rekishi-teki gabanansu 9. 2 Genzai no seifu 10 infurasutorakucha 10. 1 Kyōiku 10. 2 Kenkō 10. 3 Yusō 10. 3. 1 Dōro 10. 3. 2 Basu 10. 3. 3 Romen densha to raitorēru 10. 3. 4 Ressha 10. 3. 5 Ferī 10. 3. 6 Kūkō 10. 4 Kankyōmondai to osen sakugen 10. 5 Yūtiriti 11 kanren kōmoku 12 memo 13 sankō bunken 14 gaibu rinku rekishi omona kiji: Shidonī no rekishi to shidonī no taimu rain saisho no jūmin hīsukōto kokuritsu kōen no kangarū no mokutan-ga. Genzai shidonī to shite shira rete iru chiiki ni saisho ni sunda hitobito wa, ōsutoraria hokubu kara, soshite sono zen ni tōnan'ajia kara ijū shita senjūmin-zoku no ōsutoraria hitodeshita. Hōshasei tanso nendai sokutei wa, yaku 30, 000-nen mae kara shidonī chiiki de no ningen katsudō no shōko o shimeshite imasuga,[36] shidonī seibu no jari taiseki-mono de mitsukatta aborijini no sekki wa, 45, 000-nen kara 50, 000-nen mae made kono chiiki ni ningen no oyaji ga atta koto o shimeshite imasu. [37] Senjūmin to igirisuhito to no saisho no deai wa, 1770-nen 4 tsuki 29-nichi, jēmuzu Kukku chūi ga kāneru hantō no botanī-wan ni jōriku shi, guu~īgaru shizoku ni sōgū shita toki ni okorimashita. [38] [39] [40] Kare wa kare no nikki no naka de, karera wa konran shite ite, gaikoku hito no hōmon-sha ni taishite ikubun tekitai-tekidearu to nobeta. Kukku wa tanken no shimei o obite ori, nyūshoku o kaishi suru yō ni irai sa rete imasendeshita. Kare wa tsudzukeru mae ni shokumotsu o atsumete kagaku-teki kansatsu o okonau no ni mijikai jikan o tsuiyashimashita Show moreアーサー・フィリップが率いるシドニーは、オーストラリアで最初のヨーロッパ人の入植地であるイギリスの流刑地として設立されました。フィリップは、トーマス・タウンゼンド、第1子爵シドニーにちなんで和解に名前を付けた。[12]ニューサウスウェールズ州への流罪は、1842年にシドニーが都市として法人化された直後に終了しました。1851年にコロニーでゴールドラッシュが発生し、次の世紀にシドニーは植民地時代の前哨基地から主要な世界の文化経済の中心地に変わりました。第二次世界大戦後、大規模な移住を経験し、世界で最も多文化的な都市の1つになりました。[3] 2011年の国勢調査の時点で、シドニーでは250を超える異なる言語が話されていました。[13] 2016年の国勢調査では、居住者の約35.8%が自宅で英語以外の言語を話しました。[14]さらに、人口の45.4%が海外で生まれたと報告しており、この都市はロンドンとニューヨーク市に次いで世界で3番目に多い外国生まれの人口を持っています。[15] [16] 世界で最も高価な都市の1つであるにもかかわらず、[17]シドニーは、世界で最も住みやすい都市のトップ10に入ることがよくあります。[18] [19] [20]グローバリゼーションと世界都市研究ネットワークによってアルファグローバルシティとして分類されており、この地域および世界中での影響力を示しています。[21] [22]経済的機会で世界第11位にランクされている[23]シドニーは、金融、製造、観光に強みを持つ高度な市場経済を持っています。[24] [25]シドニーには外国銀行や多国籍企業がかなり集中しており、オーストラリアの金融資本であり、アジア太平洋地域の主要な金融ハブの1つとして宣伝されています。[26] [27] 1850年に設立されたシドニー大学は、オーストラリアで最初の大学であり、世界をリードする大学の1つと見なされています。[28]シドニーには、オーストラリアで最も古い図書館であるニューサウスウェールズ州立図書館が1826年に開館しました。[29] シドニーは、2000年夏季オリンピックなどの主要な国際スポーツイベントを主催してきました。この都市は、世界で最も訪問されている都市のトップ15のひとつであり[30]、毎年何百万人もの観光客が都市のランドマークを見に来ています。[31] 1,000,000ヘクタール(2,500,000エーカー)以上の自然保護区と公園を誇る[32]、その注目すべき自然の特徴には、シドニーハーバー、王立国立公園、王立植物園、国内最古の公園であるハイドパークがあります。[33]シドニーハーバーブリッジや世界遺産に登録されているシドニーオペラハウスなどの建造物も、海外からの訪問者によく知られています。首都圏にサービスを提供する主要な旅客空港は、世界で最も古い継続的に運営されている空港の1つであるキングスフォード-スミス空港です。[34] 1906年に設立された中央駅は、州で最大かつ最も忙しい鉄道駅であり、市内の鉄道網の主要なハブです。[35] 内容 1歴史 1.1最初の住民 1.2コロニーの確立 1.2.1競合 1.3現代の開発 1.3.119世紀 1.3.2 20世紀–現在 2地理 2.1地形 2.2地質 2.3エコロジー 2.4気候 3つの地域 3.1郊外 3.1.1インナーウェスト 3.2東部郊外 3.3シドニー南部 3.4シドニー北部 3.5ヒルズ地区 3.6西部郊外 4都市構造 4.1アーキテクチャ 4.2住宅 4.3公園とオープンスペース 5経済 5.1企業市民 5.2家政学 5.3金融サービス 5.4製造 5.5観光と国際教育 6人口統計 6.1祖先と移民 6.2言語 6.3宗教 6.4犯罪 7文化 7.1科学、芸術、歴史 7.2エンターテインメント 7.3メディア 8スポーツおよびアウトドアアクティビティ 8.1注目すべきスポーツ会場 9政府 9.1歴史的ガバナンス 9.2現在の政府 10インフラストラクチャ 10.1教育 10.2健康 10.3輸送 10.3.1道路 10.3.2バス 10.3.3路面電車とライトレール 10.3.4列車 10.3.5フェリー 10.3.6空港 10.4環境問題と汚染削減 10.5ユーティリティ 11関連項目 12メモ 13参考文献 14外部リンク 歴史 主な記事:シドニーの歴史とシドニーのタイムライン 最初の住民 ヒースコート国立公園のカンガルーの木炭画。 現在シドニーとして知られている地域に最初に住んだ人々は、オーストラリア北部から、そしてその前に東南アジアから移住した先住民族のオーストラリア人でした。放射性炭素年代測定は、約30、000年前からシドニー地域での人間活動の証拠を示していますが、[36]シドニー西部の砂利堆積物で見つかったアボリジニの石器は、45、000年から50、000年前までこの地域に人間の居住地があったことを示しています。 [37] 先住民とイギリス人との最初の出会いは、1770年4月29日、ジェームズ・クック中尉がカーネル半島のボタニー湾に上陸し、グウィーガル氏族に遭遇したときに起こりました。[38] [39] [40]彼は彼の日記の中で、彼らは混乱していて、外国人の訪問者に対して幾分敵対的であると述べた。クックは探検の使命を帯びており、入植を開始するように依頼されていませんでした。彼は続ける前に食物を集めて科学的観察を行うのに短い時間を費やしました Āsā Firippu ga hikiiru shidonī wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no yōroppa hito no nyūshoku-chidearu Igirisu no ryūkeichi to shite setsuritsu sa remashita. Firippu wa, tōmasu taunzendo, dai 1 shishaku shidonī ni chinande wakai ni namae o tsuketa. [12] Nyūsausuu~ēruzu-shū e no ruzai wa, 1842-nen ni shidonī ga toshi to shite hōjin-ka sa reta chokugo ni shūryō shimashita. 1851-Nen ni koronī de gōrudorasshu ga hassei shi,-ji no seiki ni shidonī wa shokuminchi jidai no zenshō kichi kara shuyōna sekai no bunka keizai no chūshinchi ni kawarimashita. Dainijisekaitaisengo, ōkibona ijū o keiken shi, sekai de mottomo tabunkatekina toshi no 1tsu ni narimashita. [3 ] 2011-Nen no kokuseichōsa no jiten de, shidonīde wa 250 wokoeru kotonaru gengo ga hanasa rete imashita. [13] 2016-Nen no kokuseichōsade wa, kyojū-sha no yaku 35. 8-Pāsento ga jitaku de eigoigai no gengo o hanashimashita. [14] Sarani, jinkō no 45. 4-Pāsento ga kaigai de umareta to hōkoku shite ori, kono toshi wa Rondon to nyūyōku ichi ni tsuide sekai de 3-banme ni ōi gaikoku umare no jinkō o motte imasu. [15] [16] Sekai de mottomo kōkana toshi no 1tsudearu nimokakawarazu,[17] shidonī wa, sekai de mottomo sumi yasui toshi no toppu 10 ni hairu koto ga yoku arimasu. [18] [19] [20] Gurōbarizēshon to sekai toshi kenkyū nettowāku ni yotte arufagurōbarushiti to shite bunrui sa rete ori, kono chiiki oyobi sekaijū de no eikyō-ryoku o shimeshite imasu. [21] [22] Keizai-teki kikai de sekai dai 11-i ni ranku sa rete iru [23] shidonī wa, kin'yū, seizō, kankō ni tsuyomi o motsu kōdona shijōkeisei o motte imasu. [24] [25] Shidonī ni wa gaikoku ginkō ya takokusekikigyō ga kanari shūchū shite ori, ōsutoraria no kin'yū shihondeari, ajiataiheiyō chiiki no shuyōna kin'yū habu no 1tsu to shite senden sa rete imasu. [26] [27] 1850-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta shidonī daigaku wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no daigakudeari, sekai o rīdo suru daigaku no 1tsu to minasa rete imasu. [28] Shidonī ni wa, ōsutoraria de mottomo furui toshokandearu nyūsausuu~ēruzu shūritsu toshokan ga 1826-nen ni kaikan shimashita. [29] Shidonī wa, 2000-nen kaki orinpikku nado no shuyōna kokusai supōtsuibento o shusai shite kimashita. Kono toshi wa, sekai de mottomo hōmon sa rete iru toshi no toppu 15 no hitotsudeari [30], maitoshi nan hyaku man-ri mo no kankōkyaku ga toshi no randomāku o mi ni kite imasu. [31] 1, 000, 000 Hekutāru (2 , 500, 000 ēkā) ijō no shizen hogo-ku to kōen o hokoru [32], sono chūmoku subeki shizen no tokuchō ni wa, shidonīhābā, ōritsu kokuritsu kōen, ōritsu shokubutsu-en, kokunai saiko no kōendearu haidopāku ga arimasu. [33] Shidonīhābāburijji ya seikaiisan ni tōroku sa rete iru shidonīoperahausu nado no kenzōbutsu mo, kaigai kara no hōmon-sha ni yoku shira rete imasu. Shutoken ni sābisu o teikyō suru shuyōna ryokaku kūkō wa, sekai de mottomo furui keizoku-teki ni un'ei sa rete iru kūkō no 1tsudearu kingusufōdo - Sumisu kūkōdesu. [34] 1906-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta Chūō-eki wa,-shū de saidai katsu mottomo isogashī tetsudō-ekideari, shinai no tetsudō-mō no shuyōna habudesu. [35] Naiyō 1 rekishi 1. 1 Saisho no jūmin 1. 2 Koronī no kakuritsu 1. 2. 1 Kyōgō 1. 3 Gendai no kaihatsu 1. 3. 119 Seiki 1. 3. 2 20 Seiki – genzai 2 chiri 2. 1 Chikei 2. 2 Chishitsu 2. 3 Ekorojī 2. 4 Kikō 3ttsu no chiiki 3. 1 Kōgai 3. 1. 1 In'nāu~esuto 3. 2 Tōbu kōgai 3. 3 Shidonī nanbu 3. 4 Shidonī hokubu 3. 5 Hiruzu chiku 3. 6 Seibu kōgai 4 toshi kōzō 4. 1 Ākitekucha 4. 2 Jūtaku 4. 3 Kōen to ōpunsupēsu 5 keizai 5. 1 Kigyō shimin 5. 2 Kaseigaku 5. 3 Kin'yū sābisu 5. 4 Seizō 5. 5 Kankō to kokusai kyōiku 6 jinkō tōkei 6. 1 Sosen to imin 6. 2 Gengo 6. 3 Shūkyō 6. 4 Hanzai 7 bunka 7. 1 Kagaku, geijutsu, rekishi 7. 2 Entāteinmento 7. 3 Media 8 supōtsu oyobi autodoākutibiti 8. 1 Chūmoku subeki supōtsu kaijō 9 seifu 9. 1 Rekishi-teki gabanansu 9. 2 Genzai no seifu 10 infurasutorakucha 10. 1 Kyōiku 10. 2 Kenkō 10. 3 Yusō 10. 3. 1 Dōro 10. 3. 2 Basu 10. 3. 3 Romen densha to raitorēru 10. 3. 4 Ressha 10. 3. 5 Ferī 10. 3. 6 Kūkō 10. 4 Kankyōmondai to osen sakugen 10. 5 Yūtiriti 11 kanren kōmoku 12 memo 13 sankō bunken 14 gaibu rinku rekishi omona kiji: Shidonī no rekishi to shidonī no taimu rain saisho no jūmin hīsukōto kokuritsu kōen no kangarū no mokutan-ga. Genzai shidonī to shite shira rete iru chiiki ni saisho ni sunda hitobito wa, ōsutoraria hokubu kara, soshite sono zen ni tōnan'ajia kara ijū shita senjūmin-zoku no ōsutoraria hitodeshita. Hōshasei tanso nendai sokutei wa, yaku 30, 000-nen mae kara shidonī chiiki de no ningen katsudō no shōko o shimeshite imasuga,[36] shidonī seibu no jari taiseki-mono de mitsukatta aborijini no sekki wa, 45, 000-nen kara 50, 000-nen mae made kono chiiki ni ningen no oyaji ga atta koto o shimeshite imasu. [37] Senjūmin to igirisuhito to no saisho no deai wa, 1770-nen 4 tsuki 29-nichi, jēmuzu Kukku chūi ga kāneru hantō no botanī-wan ni jōriku shi, guu~īgaru shizoku ni sōgū shita toki ni okorimashita. [38] [39] [40] Kare wa kare no nikki no naka de, karera wa konran shite ite, gaikoku hito no hōmon-sha ni taishite ikubun tekitai-tekidearu to nobeta. Kukku wa tanken no shimei o obite ori, nyūshoku o kaishi suru yō ni irai sa rete imasendeshita. Kare wa tsudzukeru mae ni shokumotsu o atsumete kagaku-teki kansatsu o okonau no ni mijikai jikan o tsuiyashimashita Show moreアーサー・フィリップが率いるシドニーは、オーストラリアで最初のヨーロッパ人の入植地であるイギリスの流刑地として設立されました。フィリップは、トーマス・タウンゼンド、第1子爵シドニーにちなんで和解に名前を付けた。[12]ニューサウスウェールズ州への流罪は、1842年にシドニーが都市として法人化された直後に終了しました。1851年にコロニーでゴールドラッシュが発生し、次の世紀にシドニーは植民地時代の前哨基地から主要な世界の文化経済の中心地に変わりました。第二次世界大戦後、大規模な移住を経験し、世界で最も多文化的な都市の1つになりました。[3] 2011年の国勢調査の時点で、シドニーでは250を超える異なる言語が話されていました。[13] 2016年の国勢調査では、居住者の約35.8%が自宅で英語以外の言語を話しました。[14]さらに、人口の45.4%が海外で生まれたと報告しており、この都市はロンドンとニューヨーク市に次いで世界で3番目に多い外国生まれの人口を持っています。[15] [16] 世界で最も高価な都市の1つであるにもかかわらず、[17]シドニーは、世界で最も住みやすい都市のトップ10に入ることがよくあります。[18] [19] [20]グローバリゼーションと世界都市研究ネットワークによってアルファグローバルシティとして分類されており、この地域および世界中での影響力を示しています。[21] [22]経済的機会で世界第11位にランクされている[23]シドニーは、金融、製造、観光に強みを持つ高度な市場経済を持っています。[24] [25]シドニーには外国銀行や多国籍企業がかなり集中しており、オーストラリアの金融資本であり、アジア太平洋地域の主要な金融ハブの1つとして宣伝されています。[26] [27] 1850年に設立されたシドニー大学は、オーストラリアで最初の大学であり、世界をリードする大学の1つと見なされています。[28]シドニーには、オーストラリアで最も古い図書館であるニューサウスウェールズ州立図書館が1826年に開館しました。[29] シドニーは、2000年夏季オリンピックなどの主要な国際スポーツイベントを主催してきました。この都市は、世界で最も訪問されている都市のトップ15のひとつであり[30]、毎年何百万人もの観光客が都市のランドマークを見に来ています。[31] 1,000,000ヘクタール(2,500,000エーカー)以上の自然保護区と公園を誇る[32]、その注目すべき自然の特徴には、シドニーハーバー、王立国立公園、王立植物園、国内最古の公園であるハイドパークがあります。[33]シドニーハーバーブリッジや世界遺産に登録されているシドニーオペラハウスなどの建造物も、海外からの訪問者によく知られています。首都圏にサービスを提供する主要な旅客空港は、世界で最も古い継続的に運営されている空港の1つであるキングスフォード-スミス空港です。[34] 1906年に設立された中央駅は、州で最大かつ最も忙しい鉄道駅であり、市内の鉄道網の主要なハブです。[35] 内容 1歴史 1.1最初の住民 1.2コロニーの確立 1.2.1競合 1.3現代の開発 1.3.119世紀 1.3.2 20世紀–現在 2地理 2.1地形 2.2地質 2.3エコロジー 2.4気候 3つの地域 3.1郊外 3.1.1インナーウェスト 3.2東部郊外 3.3シドニー南部 3.4シドニー北部 3.5ヒルズ地区 3.6西部郊外 4都市構造 4.1アーキテクチャ 4.2住宅 4.3公園とオープンスペース 5経済 5.1企業市民 5.2家政学 5.3金融サービス 5.4製造 5.5観光と国際教育 6人口統計 6.1祖先と移民 6.2言語 6.3宗教 6.4犯罪 7文化 7.1科学、芸術、歴史 7.2エンターテインメント 7.3メディア 8スポーツおよびアウトドアアクティビティ 8.1注目すべきスポーツ会場 9政府 9.1歴史的ガバナンス 9.2現在の政府 10インフラストラクチャ 10.1教育 10.2健康 10.3輸送 10.3.1道路 10.3.2バス 10.3.3路面電車とライトレール 10.3.4列車 10.3.5フェリー 10.3.6空港 10.4環境問題と汚染削減 10.5ユーティリティ 11関連項目 12メモ 13参考文献 14外部リンク 歴史 主な記事:シドニーの歴史とシドニーのタイムライン 最初の住民 ヒースコート国立公園のカンガルーの木炭画。 現在シドニーとして知られている地域に最初に住んだ人々は、オーストラリア北部から、そしてその前に東南アジアから移住した先住民族のオーストラリア人でした。放射性炭素年代測定は、約30、000年前からシドニー地域での人間活動の証拠を示していますが、[36]シドニー西部の砂利堆積物で見つかったアボリジニの石器は、45、000年から50、000年前までこの地域に人間の居住地があったことを示しています。 [37] 先住民とイギリス人との最初の出会いは、1770年4月29日、ジェームズ・クック中尉がカーネル半島のボタニー湾に上陸し、グウィーガル氏族に遭遇したときに起こりました。[38] [39] [40]彼は彼の日記の中で、彼らは混乱していて、外国人の訪問者に対して幾分敵対的であると述べた。クックは探検の使命を帯びており、入植を開始するように依頼されていませんでした。彼は続ける前に食物を集めて科学的観察を行うのに短い時間を費やしました Āsā Firippu ga hikiiru shidonī wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no yōroppa hito no nyūshoku-chidearu Igirisu no ryūkeichi to shite setsuritsu sa remashita. Firippu wa, tōmasu taunzendo, dai 1 shishaku shidonī ni chinande wakai ni namae o tsuketa. [12] Nyūsausuu~ēruzu-shū e no ruzai wa, 1842-nen ni shidonī ga toshi to shite hōjin-ka sa reta chokugo ni shūryō shimashita. 1851-Nen ni koronī de gōrudorasshu ga hassei shi,-ji no seiki ni shidonī wa shokuminchi jidai no zenshō kichi kara shuyōna sekai no bunka keizai no chūshinchi ni kawarimashita. Dainijisekaitaisengo, ōkibona ijū o keiken shi, sekai de mottomo tabunkatekina toshi no 1tsu ni narimashita. [3 ] 2011-Nen no kokuseichōsa no jiten de, shidonīde wa 250 wokoeru kotonaru gengo ga hanasa rete imashita. [13] 2016-Nen no kokuseichōsade wa, kyojū-sha no yaku 35. 8-Pāsento ga jitaku de eigoigai no gengo o hanashimashita. [14] Sarani, jinkō no 45. 4-Pāsento ga kaigai de umareta to hōkoku shite ori, kono toshi wa Rondon to nyūyōku ichi ni tsuide sekai de 3-banme ni ōi gaikoku umare no jinkō o motte imasu. [15] [16] Sekai de mottomo kōkana toshi no 1tsudearu nimokakawarazu,[17] shidonī wa, sekai de mottomo sumi yasui toshi no toppu 10 ni hairu koto ga yoku arimasu. [18] [19] [20] Gurōbarizēshon to sekai toshi kenkyū nettowāku ni yotte arufagurōbarushiti to shite bunrui sa rete ori, kono chiiki oyobi sekaijū de no eikyō-ryoku o shimeshite imasu. [21] [22] Keizai-teki kikai de sekai dai 11-i ni ranku sa rete iru [23] shidonī wa, kin'yū, seizō, kankō ni tsuyomi o motsu kōdona shijōkeisei o motte imasu. [24] [25] Shidonī ni wa gaikoku ginkō ya takokusekikigyō ga kanari shūchū shite ori, ōsutoraria no kin'yū shihondeari, ajiataiheiyō chiiki no shuyōna kin'yū habu no 1tsu to shite senden sa rete imasu. [26] [27] 1850-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta shidonī daigaku wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no daigakudeari, sekai o rīdo suru daigaku no 1tsu to minasa rete imasu. [28] Shidonī ni wa, ōsutoraria de mottomo furui toshokandearu nyūsausuu~ēruzu shūritsu toshokan ga 1826-nen ni kaikan shimashita. [29] Shidonī wa, 2000-nen kaki orinpikku nado no shuyōna kokusai supōtsuibento o shusai shite kimashita. Kono toshi wa, sekai de mottomo hōmon sa rete iru toshi no toppu 15 no hitotsudeari [30], maitoshi nan hyaku man-ri mo no kankōkyaku ga toshi no randomāku o mi ni kite imasu. [31] 1, 000, 000 Hekutāru (2 , 500, 000 ēkā) ijō no shizen hogo-ku to kōen o hokoru [32], sono chūmoku subeki shizen no tokuchō ni wa, shidonīhābā, ōritsu kokuritsu kōen, ōritsu shokubutsu-en, kokunai saiko no kōendearu haidopāku ga arimasu. [33] Shidonīhābāburijji ya seikaiisan ni tōroku sa rete iru shidonīoperahausu nado no kenzōbutsu mo, kaigai kara no hōmon-sha ni yoku shira rete imasu. Shutoken ni sābisu o teikyō suru shuyōna ryokaku kūkō wa, sekai de mottomo furui keizoku-teki ni un'ei sa rete iru kūkō no 1tsudearu kingusufōdo - Sumisu kūkōdesu. [34] 1906-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta Chūō-eki wa,-shū de saidai katsu mottomo isogashī tetsudō-ekideari, shinai no tetsudō-mō no shuyōna habudesu. [35] Naiyō 1 rekishi 1. 1 Saisho no jūmin 1. 2 Koronī no kakuritsu 1. 2. 1 Kyōgō 1. 3 Gendai no kaihatsu 1. 3. 119 Seiki 1. 3. 2 20 Seiki – genzai 2 chiri 2. 1 Chikei 2. 2 Chishitsu 2. 3 Ekorojī 2. 4 Kikō 3ttsu no chiiki 3. 1 Kōgai 3. 1. 1 In'nāu~esuto 3. 2 Tōbu kōgai 3. 3 Shidonī nanbu 3. 4 Shidonī hokubu 3. 5 Hiruzu chiku 3. 6 Seibu kōgai 4 toshi kōzō 4. 1 Ākitekucha 4. 2 Jūtaku 4. 3 Kōen to ōpunsupēsu 5 keizai 5. 1 Kigyō shimin 5. 2 Kaseigaku 5. 3 Kin'yū sābisu 5. 4 Seizō 5. 5 Kankō to kokusai kyōiku 6 jinkō tōkei 6. 1 Sosen to imin 6. 2 Gengo 6. 3 Shūkyō 6. 4 Hanzai 7 bunka 7. 1 Kagaku, geijutsu, rekishi 7. 2 Entāteinmento 7. 3 Media 8 supōtsu oyobi autodoākutibiti 8. 1 Chūmoku subeki supōtsu kaijō 9 seifu 9. 1 Rekishi-teki gabanansu 9. 2 Genzai no seifu 10 infurasutorakucha 10. 1 Kyōiku 10. 2 Kenkō 10. 3 Yusō 10. 3. 1 Dōro 10. 3. 2 Basu 10. 3. 3 Romen densha to raitorēru 10. 3. 4 Ressha 10. 3. 5 Ferī 10. 3. 6 Kūkō 10. 4 Kankyōmondai to osen sakugen 10. 5 Yūtiriti 11 kanren kōmoku 12 memo 13 sankō bunken 14 gaibu rinku rekishi omona kiji: Shidonī no rekishi to shidonī no taimu rain saisho no jūmin hīsukōto kokuritsu kōen no kangarū no mokutan-ga. Genzai shidonī to shite shira rete iru chiiki ni saisho ni sunda hitobito wa, ōsutoraria hokubu kara, soshite sono zen ni tōnan'ajia kara ijū shita senjūmin-zoku no ōsutoraria hitodeshita. Hōshasei tanso nendai sokutei wa, yaku 30, 000-nen mae kara shidonī chiiki de no ningen katsudō no shōko o shimeshite imasuga,[36] shidonī seibu no jari taiseki-mono de mitsukatta aborijini no sekki wa, 45, 000-nen kara 50, 000-nen mae made kono chiiki ni ningen no oyaji ga atta koto o shimeshite imasu. [37] Senjūmin to igirisuhito to no saisho no deai wa, 1770-nen 4 tsuki 29-nichi, jēmuzu Kukku chūi ga kāneru hantō no botanī-wan ni jōriku shi, guu~īgaru shizoku ni sōgū shita toki ni okorimashita. [38] [39] [40] Kare wa kare no nikki no naka de, karera wa konran shite ite, gaikoku hito no hōmon-sha ni taishite ikubun tekitai-tekidearu to nobeta. Kukku wa tanken no shimei o obite ori, nyūshoku o kaishi suru yō ni irai sa rete imasendeshita. Kare wa tsudzukeru mae ni shokumotsu o atsumete kagaku-teki kansatsu o okonau no ni mijikai jikan o tsuiyashimashita Show moreアーサー・フィリップが率いるシドニーは、オーストラリアで最初のヨーロッパ人の入植地であるイギリスの流刑地として設立されました。フィリップは、トーマス・タウンゼンド、第1子爵シドニーにちなんで和解に名前を付けた。[12]ニューサウスウェールズ州への流罪は、1842年にシドニーが都市として法人化された直後に終了しました。1851年にコロニーでゴールドラッシュが発生し、次の世紀にシドニーは植民地時代の前哨基地から主要な世界の文化経済の中心地に変わりました。第二次世界大戦後、大規模な移住を経験し、世界で最も多文化的な都市の1つになりました。[3] 2011年の国勢調査の時点で、シドニーでは250を超える異なる言語が話されていました。[13] 2016年の国勢調査では、居住者の約35.8%が自宅で英語以外の言語を話しました。[14]さらに、人口の45.4%が海外で生まれたと報告しており、この都市はロンドンとニューヨーク市に次いで世界で3番目に多い外国生まれの人口を持っています。[15] [16] 世界で最も高価な都市の1つであるにもかかわらず、[17]シドニーは、世界で最も住みやすい都市のトップ10に入ることがよくあります。[18] [19] [20]グローバリゼーションと世界都市研究ネットワークによってアルファグローバルシティとして分類されており、この地域および世界中での影響力を示しています。[21] [22]経済的機会で世界第11位にランクされている[23]シドニーは、金融、製造、観光に強みを持つ高度な市場経済を持っています。[24] [25]シドニーには外国銀行や多国籍企業がかなり集中しており、オーストラリアの金融資本であり、アジア太平洋地域の主要な金融ハブの1つとして宣伝されています。[26] [27] 1850年に設立されたシドニー大学は、オーストラリアで最初の大学であり、世界をリードする大学の1つと見なされています。[28]シドニーには、オーストラリアで最も古い図書館であるニューサウスウェールズ州立図書館が1826年に開館しました。[29] シドニーは、2000年夏季オリンピックなどの主要な国際スポーツイベントを主催してきました。この都市は、世界で最も訪問されている都市のトップ15のひとつであり[30]、毎年何百万人もの観光客が都市のランドマークを見に来ています。[31] 1,000,000ヘクタール(2,500,000エーカー)以上の自然保護区と公園を誇る[32]、その注目すべき自然の特徴には、シドニーハーバー、王立国立公園、王立植物園、国内最古の公園であるハイドパークがあります。[33]シドニーハーバーブリッジや世界遺産に登録されているシドニーオペラハウスなどの建造物も、海外からの訪問者によく知られています。首都圏にサービスを提供する主要な旅客空港は、世界で最も古い継続的に運営されている空港の1つであるキングスフォード-スミス空港です。[34] 1906年に設立された中央駅は、州で最大かつ最も忙しい鉄道駅であり、市内の鉄道網の主要なハブです。[35] 内容 1歴史 1.1最初の住民 1.2コロニーの確立 1.2.1競合 1.3現代の開発 1.3.119世紀 1.3.2 20世紀–現在 2地理 2.1地形 2.2地質 2.3エコロジー 2.4気候 3つの地域 3.1郊外 3.1.1インナーウェスト 3.2東部郊外 3.3シドニー南部 3.4シドニー北部 3.5ヒルズ地区 3.6西部郊外 4都市構造 4.1アーキテクチャ 4.2住宅 4.3公園とオープンスペース 5経済 5.1企業市民 5.2家政学 5.3金融サービス 5.4製造 5.5観光と国際教育 6人口統計 6.1祖先と移民 6.2言語 6.3宗教 6.4犯罪 7文化 7.1科学、芸術、歴史 7.2エンターテインメント 7.3メディア 8スポーツおよびアウトドアアクティビティ 8.1注目すべきスポーツ会場 9政府 9.1歴史的ガバナンス 9.2現在の政府 10インフラストラクチャ 10.1教育 10.2健康 10.3輸送 10.3.1道路 10.3.2バス 10.3.3路面電車とライトレール 10.3.4列車 10.3.5フェリー 10.3.6空港 10.4環境問題と汚染削減 10.5ユーティリティ 11関連項目 12メモ 13参考文献 14外部リンク 歴史 主な記事:シドニーの歴史とシドニーのタイムライン 最初の住民 ヒースコート国立公園のカンガルーの木炭画。 現在シドニーとして知られている地域に最初に住んだ人々は、オーストラリア北部から、そしてその前に東南アジアから移住した先住民族のオーストラリア人でした。放射性炭素年代測定は、約30、000年前からシドニー地域での人間活動の証拠を示していますが、[36]シドニー西部の砂利堆積物で見つかったアボリジニの石器は、45、000年から50、000年前までこの地域に人間の居住地があったことを示しています。 [37] 先住民とイギリス人との最初の出会いは、1770年4月29日、ジェームズ・クック中尉がカーネル半島のボタニー湾に上陸し、グウィーガル氏族に遭遇したときに起こりました。[38] [39] [40]彼は彼の日記の中で、彼らは混乱していて、外国人の訪問者に対して幾分敵対的であると述べた。クックは探検の使命を帯びており、入植を開始するように依頼されていませんでした。彼は続ける前に食物を集めて科学的観察を行うのに短い時間を費やしました Āsā Firippu ga hikiiru shidonī wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no yōroppa hito no nyūshoku-chidearu Igirisu no ryūkeichi to shite setsuritsu sa remashita. Firippu wa, tōmasu taunzendo, dai 1 shishaku shidonī ni chinande wakai ni namae o tsuketa. [12] Nyūsausuu~ēruzu-shū e no ruzai wa, 1842-nen ni shidonī ga toshi to shite hōjin-ka sa reta chokugo ni shūryō shimashita. 1851-Nen ni koronī de gōrudorasshu ga hassei shi,-ji no seiki ni shidonī wa shokuminchi jidai no zenshō kichi kara shuyōna sekai no bunka keizai no chūshinchi ni kawarimashita. Dainijisekaitaisengo, ōkibona ijū o keiken shi, sekai de mottomo tabunkatekina toshi no 1tsu ni narimashita. [3 ] 2011-Nen no kokuseichōsa no jiten de, shidonīde wa 250 wokoeru kotonaru gengo ga hanasa rete imashita. [13] 2016-Nen no kokuseichōsade wa, kyojū-sha no yaku 35. 8-Pāsento ga jitaku de eigoigai no gengo o hanashimashita. [14] Sarani, jinkō no 45. 4-Pāsento ga kaigai de umareta to hōkoku shite ori, kono toshi wa Rondon to nyūyōku ichi ni tsuide sekai de 3-banme ni ōi gaikoku umare no jinkō o motte imasu. [15] [16] Sekai de mottomo kōkana toshi no 1tsudearu nimokakawarazu,[17] shidonī wa, sekai de mottomo sumi yasui toshi no toppu 10 ni hairu koto ga yoku arimasu. [18] [19] [20] Gurōbarizēshon to sekai toshi kenkyū nettowāku ni yotte arufagurōbarushiti to shite bunrui sa rete ori, kono chiiki oyobi sekaijū de no eikyō-ryoku o shimeshite imasu. [21] [22] Keizai-teki kikai de sekai dai 11-i ni ranku sa rete iru [23] shidonī wa, kin'yū, seizō, kankō ni tsuyomi o motsu kōdona shijōkeisei o motte imasu. [24] [25] Shidonī ni wa gaikoku ginkō ya takokusekikigyō ga kanari shūchū shite ori, ōsutoraria no kin'yū shihondeari, ajiataiheiyō chiiki no shuyōna kin'yū habu no 1tsu to shite senden sa rete imasu. [26] [27] 1850-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta shidonī daigaku wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no daigakudeari, sekai o rīdo suru daigaku no 1tsu to minasa rete imasu. [28] Shidonī ni wa, ōsutoraria de mottomo furui toshokandearu nyūsausuu~ēruzu shūritsu toshokan ga 1826-nen ni kaikan shimashita. [29] Shidonī wa, 2000-nen kaki orinpikku nado no shuyōna kokusai supōtsuibento o shusai shite kimashita. Kono toshi wa, sekai de mottomo hōmon sa rete iru toshi no toppu 15 no hitotsudeari [30], maitoshi nan hyaku man-ri mo no kankōkyaku ga toshi no randomāku o mi ni kite imasu. [31] 1, 000, 000 Hekutāru (2 , 500, 000 ēkā) ijō no shizen hogo-ku to kōen o hokoru [32], sono chūmoku subeki shizen no tokuchō ni wa, shidonīhābā, ōritsu kokuritsu kōen, ōritsu shokubutsu-en, kokunai saiko no kōendearu haidopāku ga arimasu. [33] Shidonīhābāburijji ya seikaiisan ni tōroku sa rete iru shidonīoperahausu nado no kenzōbutsu mo, kaigai kara no hōmon-sha ni yoku shira rete imasu. Shutoken ni sābisu o teikyō suru shuyōna ryokaku kūkō wa, sekai de mottomo furui keizoku-teki ni un'ei sa rete iru kūkō no 1tsudearu kingusufōdo - Sumisu kūkōdesu. [34] 1906-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta Chūō-eki wa,-shū de saidai katsu mottomo isogashī tetsudō-ekideari, shinai no tetsudō-mō no shuyōna habudesu. [35] Naiyō 1 rekishi 1. 1 Saisho no jūmin 1. 2 Koronī no kakuritsu 1. 2. 1 Kyōgō 1. 3 Gendai no kaihatsu 1. 3. 119 Seiki 1. 3. 2 20 Seiki – genzai 2 chiri 2. 1 Chikei 2. 2 Chishitsu 2. 3 Ekorojī 2. 4 Kikō 3ttsu no chiiki 3. 1 Kōgai 3. 1. 1 In'nāu~esuto 3. 2 Tōbu kōgai 3. 3 Shidonī nanbu 3. 4 Shidonī hokubu 3. 5 Hiruzu chiku 3. 6 Seibu kōgai 4 toshi kōzō 4. 1 Ākitekucha 4. 2 Jūtaku 4. 3 Kōen to ōpunsupēsu 5 keizai 5. 1 Kigyō shimin 5. 2 Kaseigaku 5. 3 Kin'yū sābisu 5. 4 Seizō 5. 5 Kankō to kokusai kyōiku 6 jinkō tōkei 6. 1 Sosen to imin 6. 2 Gengo 6. 3 Shūkyō 6. 4 Hanzai 7 bunka 7. 1 Kagaku, geijutsu, rekishi 7. 2 Entāteinmento 7. 3 Media 8 supōtsu oyobi autodoākutibiti 8. 1 Chūmoku subeki supōtsu kaijō 9 seifu 9. 1 Rekishi-teki gabanansu 9. 2 Genzai no seifu 10 infurasutorakucha 10. 1 Kyōiku 10. 2 Kenkō 10. 3 Yusō 10. 3. 1 Dōro 10. 3. 2 Basu 10. 3. 3 Romen densha to raitorēru 10. 3. 4 Ressha 10. 3. 5 Ferī 10. 3. 6 Kūkō 10. 4 Kankyōmondai to osen sakugen 10. 5 Yūtiriti 11 kanren kōmoku 12 memo 13 sankō bunken 14 gaibu rinku rekishi omona kiji: Shidonī no rekishi to shidonī no taimu rain saisho no jūmin hīsukōto kokuritsu kōen no kangarū no mokutan-ga. Genzai shidonī to shite shira rete iru chiiki ni saisho ni sunda hitobito wa, ōsutoraria hokubu kara, soshite sono zen ni tōnan'ajia kara ijū shita senjūmin-zoku no ōsutoraria hitodeshita. Hōshasei tanso nendai sokutei wa, yaku 30, 000-nen mae kara shidonī chiiki de no ningen katsudō no shōko o shimeshite imasuga,[36] shidonī seibu no jari taiseki-mono de mitsukatta aborijini no sekki wa, 45, 000-nen kara 50, 000-nen mae made kono chiiki ni ningen no oyaji ga atta koto o shimeshite imasu. [37] Senjūmin to igirisuhito to no saisho no deai wa, 1770-nen 4 tsuki 29-nichi, jēmuzu Kukku chūi ga kāneru hantō no botanī-wan ni jōriku shi, guu~īgaru shizoku ni sōgū shita toki ni okorimashita. [38] [39] [40] Kare wa kare no nikki no naka de, karera wa konran shite ite, gaikoku hito no hōmon-sha ni taishite ikubun tekitai-tekidearu to nobeta. Kukku wa tanken no shimei o obite ori, nyūshoku o kaishi suru yō ni irai sa rete imasendeshita. Kare wa tsudzukeru mae ni shokumotsu o atsumete kagaku-teki kansatsu o okonau no ni mijikai jikan o tsuiyashimashita Show moreアーサー・フィリップが率いるシドニーは、オーストラリアで最初のヨーロッパ人の入植地であるイギリスの流刑地として設立されました。フィリップは、トーマス・タウンゼンド、第1子爵シドニーにちなんで和解に名前を付けた。[12]ニューサウスウェールズ州への流罪は、1842年にシドニーが都市として法人化された直後に終了しました。1851年にコロニーでゴールドラッシュが発生し、次の世紀にシドニーは植民地時代の前哨基地から主要な世界の文化経済の中心地に変わりました。第二次世界大戦後、大規模な移住を経験し、世界で最も多文化的な都市の1つになりました。[3] 2011年の国勢調査の時点で、シドニーでは250を超える異なる言語が話されていました。[13] 2016年の国勢調査では、居住者の約35.8%が自宅で英語以外の言語を話しました。[14]さらに、人口の45.4%が海外で生まれたと報告しており、この都市はロンドンとニューヨーク市に次いで世界で3番目に多い外国生まれの人口を持っています。[15] [16] 世界で最も高価な都市の1つであるにもかかわらず、[17]シドニーは、世界で最も住みやすい都市のトップ10に入ることがよくあります。[18] [19] [20]グローバリゼーションと世界都市研究ネットワークによってアルファグローバルシティとして分類されており、この地域および世界中での影響力を示しています。[21] [22]経済的機会で世界第11位にランクされている[23]シドニーは、金融、製造、観光に強みを持つ高度な市場経済を持っています。[24] [25]シドニーには外国銀行や多国籍企業がかなり集中しており、オーストラリアの金融資本であり、アジア太平洋地域の主要な金融ハブの1つとして宣伝されています。[26] [27] 1850年に設立されたシドニー大学は、オーストラリアで最初の大学であり、世界をリードする大学の1つと見なされています。[28]シドニーには、オーストラリアで最も古い図書館であるニューサウスウェールズ州立図書館が1826年に開館しました。[29] シドニーは、2000年夏季オリンピックなどの主要な国際スポーツイベントを主催してきました。この都市は、世界で最も訪問されている都市のトップ15のひとつであり[30]、毎年何百万人もの観光客が都市のランドマークを見に来ています。[31] 1,000,000ヘクタール(2,500,000エーカー)以上の自然保護区と公園を誇る[32]、その注目すべき自然の特徴には、シドニーハーバー、王立国立公園、王立植物園、国内最古の公園であるハイドパークがあります。[33]シドニーハーバーブリッジや世界遺産に登録されているシドニーオペラハウスなどの建造物も、海外からの訪問者によく知られています。首都圏にサービスを提供する主要な旅客空港は、世界で最も古い継続的に運営されている空港の1つであるキングスフォード-スミス空港です。[34] 1906年に設立された中央駅は、州で最大かつ最も忙しい鉄道駅であり、市内の鉄道網の主要なハブです。[35] 内容 1歴史 1.1最初の住民 1.2コロニーの確立 1.2.1競合 1.3現代の開発 1.3.119世紀 1.3.2 20世紀–現在 2地理 2.1地形 2.2地質 2.3エコロジー 2.4気候 3つの地域 3.1郊外 3.1.1インナーウェスト 3.2東部郊外 3.3シドニー南部 3.4シドニー北部 3.5ヒルズ地区 3.6西部郊外 4都市構造 4.1アーキテクチャ 4.2住宅 4.3公園とオープンスペース 5経済 5.1企業市民 5.2家政学 5.3金融サービス 5.4製造 5.5観光と国際教育 6人口統計 6.1祖先と移民 6.2言語 6.3宗教 6.4犯罪 7文化 7.1科学、芸術、歴史 7.2エンターテインメント 7.3メディア 8スポーツおよびアウトドアアクティビティ 8.1注目すべきスポーツ会場 9政府 9.1歴史的ガバナンス 9.2現在の政府 10インフラストラクチャ 10.1教育 10.2健康 10.3輸送 10.3.1道路 10.3.2バス 10.3.3路面電車とライトレール 10.3.4列車 10.3.5フェリー 10.3.6空港 10.4環境問題と汚染削減 10.5ユーティリティ 11関連項目 12メモ 13参考文献 14外部リンク 歴史 主な記事:シドニーの歴史とシドニーのタイムライン 最初の住民 ヒースコート国立公園のカンガルーの木炭画。 現在シドニーとして知られている地域に最初に住んだ人々は、オーストラリア北部から、そしてその前に東南アジアから移住した先住民族のオーストラリア人でした。放射性炭素年代測定は、約30、000年前からシドニー地域での人間活動の証拠を示していますが、[36]シドニー西部の砂利堆積物で見つかったアボリジニの石器は、45、000年から50、000年前までこの地域に人間の居住地があったことを示しています。 [37] 先住民とイギリス人との最初の出会いは、1770年4月29日、ジェームズ・クック中尉がカーネル半島のボタニー湾に上陸し、グウィーガル氏族に遭遇したときに起こりました。[38] [39] [40]彼は彼の日記の中で、彼らは混乱していて、外国人の訪問者に対して幾分敵対的であると述べた。クックは探検の使命を帯びており、入植を開始するように依頼されていませんでした。彼は続ける前に食物を集めて科学的観察を行うのに短い時間を費やしました Āsā Firippu ga hikiiru shidonī wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no yōroppa hito no nyūshoku-chidearu Igirisu no ryūkeichi to shite setsuritsu sa remashita. Firippu wa, tōmasu taunzendo, dai 1 shishaku shidonī ni chinande wakai ni namae o tsuketa. [12] Nyūsausuu~ēruzu-shū e no ruzai wa, 1842-nen ni shidonī ga toshi to shite hōjin-ka sa reta chokugo ni shūryō shimashita. 1851-Nen ni koronī de gōrudorasshu ga hassei shi,-ji no seiki ni shidonī wa shokuminchi jidai no zenshō kichi kara shuyōna sekai no bunka keizai no chūshinchi ni kawarimashita. Dainijisekaitaisengo, ōkibona ijū o keiken shi, sekai de mottomo tabunkatekina toshi no 1tsu ni narimashita. [3 ] 2011-Nen no kokuseichōsa no jiten de, shidonīde wa 250 wokoeru kotonaru gengo ga hanasa rete imashita. [13] 2016-Nen no kokuseichōsade wa, kyojū-sha no yaku 35. 8-Pāsento ga jitaku de eigoigai no gengo o hanashimashita. [14] Sarani, jinkō no 45. 4-Pāsento ga kaigai de umareta to hōkoku shite ori, kono toshi wa Rondon to nyūyōku ichi ni tsuide sekai de 3-banme ni ōi gaikoku umare no jinkō o motte imasu. [15] [16] Sekai de mottomo kōkana toshi no 1tsudearu nimokakawarazu,[17] shidonī wa, sekai de mottomo sumi yasui toshi no toppu 10 ni hairu koto ga yoku arimasu. [18] [19] [20] Gurōbarizēshon to sekai toshi kenkyū nettowāku ni yotte arufagurōbarushiti to shite bunrui sa rete ori, kono chiiki oyobi sekaijū de no eikyō-ryoku o shimeshite imasu. [21] [22] Keizai-teki kikai de sekai dai 11-i ni ranku sa rete iru [23] shidonī wa, kin'yū, seizō, kankō ni tsuyomi o motsu kōdona shijōkeisei o motte imasu. [24] [25] Shidonī ni wa gaikoku ginkō ya takokusekikigyō ga kanari shūchū shite ori, ōsutoraria no kin'yū shihondeari, ajiataiheiyō chiiki no shuyōna kin'yū habu no 1tsu to shite senden sa rete imasu. [26] [27] 1850-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta shidonī daigaku wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no daigakudeari, sekai o rīdo suru daigaku no 1tsu to minasa rete imasu. [28] Shidonī ni wa, ōsutoraria de mottomo furui toshokandearu nyūsausuu~ēruzu shūritsu toshokan ga 1826-nen ni kaikan shimashita. [29] Shidonī wa, 2000-nen kaki orinpikku nado no shuyōna kokusai supōtsuibento o shusai shite kimashita. Kono toshi wa, sekai de mottomo hōmon sa rete iru toshi no toppu 15 no hitotsudeari [30], maitoshi nan hyaku man-ri mo no kankōkyaku ga toshi no randomāku o mi ni kite imasu. [31] 1, 000, 000 Hekutāru (2 , 500, 000 ēk

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  24. アーサー・フィリップが率いるシドニーは、オーストラリアで最初のヨーロッパ人の入植地であるイギリスの流刑地として設立されました。フィリップは、トーマス・タウンゼンド、第1子爵シドニーにちなんで和解に名前を付けた。[12]ニューサウスウェールズ州への流罪は、1842年にシドニーが都市として法人化された直後に終了しました。1851年にコロニーでゴールドラッシュが発生し、次の世紀にシドニーは植民地時代の前哨基地から主要な世界の文化経済の中心地に変わりました。第二次世界大戦後、大規模な移住を経験し、世界で最も多文化的な都市の1つになりました。[3] 2011年の国勢調査の時点で、シドニーでは250を超える異なる言語が話されていました。[13] 2016年の国勢調査では、居住者の約35.8%が自宅で英語以外の言語を話しました。[14]さらに、人口の45.4%が海外で生まれたと報告しており、この都市はロンドンとニューヨーク市に次いで世界で3番目に多い外国生まれの人口を持っています。[15] [16] 世界で最も高価な都市の1つであるにもかかわらず、[17]シドニーは、世界で最も住みやすい都市のトップ10に入ることがよくあります。[18] [19] [20]グローバリゼーションと世界都市研究ネットワークによってアルファグローバルシティとして分類されており、この地域および世界中での影響力を示しています。[21] [22]経済的機会で世界第11位にランクされている[23]シドニーは、金融、製造、観光に強みを持つ高度な市場経済を持っています。[24] [25]シドニーには外国銀行や多国籍企業がかなり集中しており、オーストラリアの金融資本であり、アジア太平洋地域の主要な金融ハブの1つとして宣伝されています。[26] [27] 1850年に設立されたシドニー大学は、オーストラリアで最初の大学であり、世界をリードする大学の1つと見なされています。[28]シドニーには、オーストラリアで最も古い図書館であるニューサウスウェールズ州立図書館が1826年に開館しました。[29] シドニーは、2000年夏季オリンピックなどの主要な国際スポーツイベントを主催してきました。この都市は、世界で最も訪問されている都市のトップ15のひとつであり[30]、毎年何百万人もの観光客が都市のランドマークを見に来ています。[31] 1,000,000ヘクタール(2,500,000エーカー)以上の自然保護区と公園を誇る[32]、その注目すべき自然の特徴には、シドニーハーバー、王立国立公園、王立植物園、国内最古の公園であるハイドパークがあります。[33]シドニーハーバーブリッジや世界遺産に登録されているシドニーオペラハウスなどの建造物も、海外からの訪問者によく知られています。首都圏にサービスを提供する主要な旅客空港は、世界で最も古い継続的に運営されている空港の1つであるキングスフォード-スミス空港です。[34] 1906年に設立された中央駅は、州で最大かつ最も忙しい鉄道駅であり、市内の鉄道網の主要なハブです。[35] 内容 1歴史 1.1最初の住民 1.2コロニーの確立 1.2.1競合 1.3現代の開発 1.3.119世紀 1.3.2 20世紀–現在 2地理 2.1地形 2.2地質 2.3エコロジー 2.4気候 3つの地域 3.1郊外 3.1.1インナーウェスト 3.2東部郊外 3.3シドニー南部 3.4シドニー北部 3.5ヒルズ地区 3.6西部郊外 4都市構造 4.1アーキテクチャ 4.2住宅 4.3公園とオープンスペース 5経済 5.1企業市民 5.2家政学 5.3金融サービス 5.4製造 5.5観光と国際教育 6人口統計 6.1祖先と移民 6.2言語 6.3宗教 6.4犯罪 7文化 7.1科学、芸術、歴史 7.2エンターテインメント 7.3メディア 8スポーツおよびアウトドアアクティビティ 8.1注目すべきスポーツ会場 9政府 9.1歴史的ガバナンス 9.2現在の政府 10インフラストラクチャ 10.1教育 10.2健康 10.3輸送 10.3.1道路 10.3.2バス 10.3.3路面電車とライトレール 10.3.4列車 10.3.5フェリー 10.3.6空港 10.4環境問題と汚染削減 10.5ユーティリティ 11関連項目 12メモ 13参考文献 14外部リンク 歴史 主な記事:シドニーの歴史とシドニーのタイムライン 最初の住民 ヒースコート国立公園のカンガルーの木炭画。 現在シドニーとして知られている地域に最初に住んだ人々は、オーストラリア北部から、そしてその前に東南アジアから移住した先住民族のオーストラリア人でした。放射性炭素年代測定は、約30、000年前からシドニー地域での人間活動の証拠を示していますが、[36]シドニー西部の砂利堆積物で見つかったアボリジニの石器は、45、000年から50、000年前までこの地域に人間の居住地があったことを示しています。 [37] 先住民とイギリス人との最初の出会いは、1770年4月29日、ジェームズ・クック中尉がカーネル半島のボタニー湾に上陸し、グウィーガル氏族に遭遇したときに起こりました。[38] [39] [40]彼は彼の日記の中で、彼らは混乱していて、外国人の訪問者に対して幾分敵対的であると述べた。クックは探検の使命を帯びており、入植を開始するように依頼されていませんでした。彼は続ける前に食物を集めて科学的観察を行うのに短い時間を費やしました Āsā Firippu ga hikiiru shidonī wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no yōroppa hito no nyūshoku-chidearu Igirisu no ryūkeichi to shite setsuritsu sa remashita. Firippu wa, tōmasu taunzendo, dai 1 shishaku shidonī ni chinande wakai ni namae o tsuketa. [12] Nyūsausuu~ēruzu-shū e no ruzai wa, 1842-nen ni shidonī ga toshi to shite hōjin-ka sa reta chokugo ni shūryō shimashita. 1851-Nen ni koronī de gōrudorasshu ga hassei shi,-ji no seiki ni shidonī wa shokuminchi jidai no zenshō kichi kara shuyōna sekai no bunka keizai no chūshinchi ni kawarimashita. Dainijisekaitaisengo, ōkibona ijū o keiken shi, sekai de mottomo tabunkatekina toshi no 1tsu ni narimashita. [3 ] 2011-Nen no kokuseichōsa no jiten de, shidonīde wa 250 wokoeru kotonaru gengo ga hanasa rete imashita. [13] 2016-Nen no kokuseichōsade wa, kyojū-sha no yaku 35. 8-Pāsento ga jitaku de eigoigai no gengo o hanashimashita. [14] Sarani, jinkō no 45. 4-Pāsento ga kaigai de umareta to hōkoku shite ori, kono toshi wa Rondon to nyūyōku ichi ni tsuide sekai de 3-banme ni ōi gaikoku umare no jinkō o motte imasu. [15] [16] Sekai de mottomo kōkana toshi no 1tsudearu nimokakawarazu,[17] shidonī wa, sekai de mottomo sumi yasui toshi no toppu 10 ni hairu koto ga yoku arimasu. [18] [19] [20] Gurōbarizēshon to sekai toshi kenkyū nettowāku ni yotte arufagurōbarushiti to shite bunrui sa rete ori, kono chiiki oyobi sekaijū de no eikyō-ryoku o shimeshite imasu. [21] [22] Keizai-teki kikai de sekai dai 11-i ni ranku sa rete iru [23] shidonī wa, kin'yū, seizō, kankō ni tsuyomi o motsu kōdona shijōkeisei o motte imasu. [24] [25] Shidonī ni wa gaikoku ginkō ya takokusekikigyō ga kanari shūchū shite ori, ōsutoraria no kin'yū shihondeari, ajiataiheiyō chiiki no shuyōna kin'yū habu no 1tsu to shite senden sa rete imasu. [26] [27] 1850-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta shidonī daigaku wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no daigakudeari, sekai o rīdo suru daigaku no 1tsu to minasa rete imasu. [28] Shidonī ni wa, ōsutoraria de mottomo furui toshokandearu nyūsausuu~ēruzu shūritsu toshokan ga 1826-nen ni kaikan shimashita. [29] Shidonī wa, 2000-nen kaki orinpikku nado no shuyōna kokusai supōtsuibento o shusai shite kimashita. Kono toshi wa, sekai de mottomo hōmon sa rete iru toshi no toppu 15 no hitotsudeari [30], maitoshi nan hyaku man-ri mo no kankōkyaku ga toshi no randomāku o mi ni kite imasu. [31] 1, 000, 000 Hekutāru (2 , 500, 000 ēkā) ijō no shizen hogo-ku to kōen o hokoru [32], sono chūmoku subeki shizen no tokuchō ni wa, shidonīhābā, ōritsu kokuritsu kōen, ōritsu shokubutsu-en, kokunai saiko no kōendearu haidopāku ga arimasu. [33] Shidonīhābāburijji ya seikaiisan ni tōroku sa rete iru shidonīoperahausu nado no kenzōbutsu mo, kaigai kara no hōmon-sha ni yoku shira rete imasu. Shutoken ni sābisu o teikyō suru shuyōna ryokaku kūkō wa, sekai de mottomo furui keizoku-teki ni un'ei sa rete iru kūkō no 1tsudearu kingusufōdo - Sumisu kūkōdesu. [34] 1906-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta Chūō-eki wa,-shū de saidai katsu mottomo isogashī tetsudō-ekideari, shinai no tetsudō-mō no shuyōna habudesu. [35] Naiyō 1 rekishi 1. 1 Saisho no jūmin 1. 2 Koronī no kakuritsu 1. 2. 1 Kyōgō 1. 3 Gendai no kaihatsu 1. 3. 119 Seiki 1. 3. 2 20 Seiki – genzai 2 chiri 2. 1 Chikei 2. 2 Chishitsu 2. 3 Ekorojī 2. 4 Kikō 3ttsu no chiiki 3. 1 Kōgai 3. 1. 1 In'nāu~esuto 3. 2 Tōbu kōgai 3. 3 Shidonī nanbu 3. 4 Shidonī hokubu 3. 5 Hiruzu chiku 3. 6 Seibu kōgai 4 toshi kōzō 4. 1 Ākitekucha 4. 2 Jūtaku 4. 3 Kōen to ōpunsupēsu 5 keizai 5. 1 Kigyō shimin 5. 2 Kaseigaku 5. 3 Kin'yū sābisu 5. 4 Seizō 5. 5 Kankō to kokusai kyōiku 6 jinkō tōkei 6. 1 Sosen to imin 6. 2 Gengo 6. 3 Shūkyō 6. 4 Hanzai 7 bunka 7. 1 Kagaku, geijutsu, rekishi 7. 2 Entāteinmento 7. 3 Media 8 supōtsu oyobi autodoākutibiti 8. 1 Chūmoku subeki supōtsu kaijō 9 seifu 9. 1 Rekishi-teki gabanansu 9. 2 Genzai no seifu 10 infurasutorakucha 10. 1 Kyōiku 10. 2 Kenkō 10. 3 Yusō 10. 3. 1 Dōro 10. 3. 2 Basu 10. 3. 3 Romen densha to raitorēru 10. 3. 4 Ressha 10. 3. 5 Ferī 10. 3. 6 Kūkō 10. 4 Kankyōmondai to osen sakugen 10. 5 Yūtiriti 11 kanren kōmoku 12 memo 13 sankō bunken 14 gaibu rinku rekishi omona kiji: Shidonī no rekishi to shidonī no taimu rain saisho no jūmin hīsukōto kokuritsu kōen no kangarū no mokutan-ga. Genzai shidonī to shite shira rete iru chiiki ni saisho ni sunda hitobito wa, ōsutoraria hokubu kara, soshite sono zen ni tōnan'ajia kara ijū shita senjūmin-zoku no ōsutoraria hitodeshita. Hōshasei tanso nendai sokutei wa, yaku 30, 000-nen mae kara shidonī chiiki de no ningen katsudō no shōko o shimeshite imasuga,[36] shidonī seibu no jari taiseki-mono de mitsukatta aborijini no sekki wa, 45, 000-nen kara 50, 000-nen mae made kono chiiki ni ningen no oyaji ga atta koto o shimeshite imasu. [37] Senjūmin to igirisuhito to no saisho no deai wa, 1770-nen 4 tsuki 29-nichi, jēmuzu Kukku chūi ga kāneru hantō no botanī-wan ni jōriku shi, guu~īgaru shizoku ni sōgū shita toki ni okorimashita. [38] [39] [40] Kare wa kare no nikki no naka de, karera wa konran shite ite, gaikoku hito no hōmon-sha ni taishite ikubun tekitai-tekidearu to nobeta. Kukku wa tanken no shimei o obite ori, nyūshoku o kaishi suru yō ni irai sa rete imasendeshita. Kare wa tsudzukeru mae ni shokumotsu o atsumete kagaku-teki kansatsu o okonau no ni mijikai jikan o tsuiyashimashita Show more

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  25. アーサー・フィリップが率いるシドニーは、オーストラリアで最初のヨーロッパ人の入植地であるイギリスの流刑地として設立されました。フィリップは、トーマス・タウンゼンド、第1子爵シドニーにちなんで和解に名前を付けた。[12]ニューサウスウェールズ州への流罪は、1842年にシドニーが都市として法人化された直後に終了しました。1851年にコロニーでゴールドラッシュが発生し、次の世紀にシドニーは植民地時代の前哨基地から主要な世界の文化経済の中心地に変わりました。第二次世界大戦後、大規模な移住を経験し、世界で最も多文化的な都市の1つになりました。[3] 2011年の国勢調査の時点で、シドニーでは250を超える異なる言語が話されていました。[13] 2016年の国勢調査では、居住者の約35.8%が自宅で英語以外の言語を話しました。[14]さらに、人口の45.4%が海外で生まれたと報告しており、この都市はロンドンとニューヨーク市に次いで世界で3番目に多い外国生まれの人口を持っています。[15] [16] 世界で最も高価な都市の1つであるにもかかわらず、[17]シドニーは、世界で最も住みやすい都市のトップ10に入ることがよくあります。[18] [19] [20]グローバリゼーションと世界都市研究ネットワークによってアルファグローバルシティとして分類されており、この地域および世界中での影響力を示しています。[21] [22]経済的機会で世界第11位にランクされている[23]シドニーは、金融、製造、観光に強みを持つ高度な市場経済を持っています。[24] [25]シドニーには外国銀行や多国籍企業がかなり集中しており、オーストラリアの金融資本であり、アジア太平洋地域の主要な金融ハブの1つとして宣伝されています。[26] [27] 1850年に設立されたシドニー大学は、オーストラリアで最初の大学であり、世界をリードする大学の1つと見なされています。[28]シドニーには、オーストラリアで最も古い図書館であるニューサウスウェールズ州立図書館が1826年に開館しました。[29] シドニーは、2000年夏季オリンピックなどの主要な国際スポーツイベントを主催してきました。この都市は、世界で最も訪問されている都市のトップ15のひとつであり[30]、毎年何百万人もの観光客が都市のランドマークを見に来ています。[31] 1,000,000ヘクタール(2,500,000エーカー)以上の自然保護区と公園を誇る[32]、その注目すべき自然の特徴には、シドニーハーバー、王立国立公園、王立植物園、国内最古の公園であるハイドパークがあります。[33]シドニーハーバーブリッジや世界遺産に登録されているシドニーオペラハウスなどの建造物も、海外からの訪問者によく知られています。首都圏にサービスを提供する主要な旅客空港は、世界で最も古い継続的に運営されている空港の1つであるキングスフォード-スミス空港です。[34] 1906年に設立された中央駅は、州で最大かつ最も忙しい鉄道駅であり、市内の鉄道網の主要なハブです。[35] 内容 1歴史 1.1最初の住民 1.2コロニーの確立 1.2.1競合 1.3現代の開発 1.3.119世紀 1.3.2 20世紀–現在 2地理 2.1地形 2.2地質 2.3エコロジー 2.4気候 3つの地域 3.1郊外 3.1.1インナーウェスト 3.2東部郊外 3.3シドニー南部 3.4シドニー北部 3.5ヒルズ地区 3.6西部郊外 4都市構造 4.1アーキテクチャ 4.2住宅 4.3公園とオープンスペース 5経済 5.1企業市民 5.2家政学 5.3金融サービス 5.4製造 5.5観光と国際教育 6人口統計 6.1祖先と移民 6.2言語 6.3宗教 6.4犯罪 7文化 7.1科学、芸術、歴史 7.2エンターテインメント 7.3メディア 8スポーツおよびアウトドアアクティビティ 8.1注目すべきスポーツ会場 9政府 9.1歴史的ガバナンス 9.2現在の政府 10インフラストラクチャ 10.1教育 10.2健康 10.3輸送 10.3.1道路 10.3.2バス 10.3.3路面電車とライトレール 10.3.4列車 10.3.5フェリー 10.3.6空港 10.4環境問題と汚染削減 10.5ユーティリティ 11関連項目 12メモ 13参考文献 14外部リンク 歴史 主な記事:シドニーの歴史とシドニーのタイムライン 最初の住民 ヒースコート国立公園のカンガルーの木炭画。 現在シドニーとして知られている地域に最初に住んだ人々は、オーストラリア北部から、そしてその前に東南アジアから移住した先住民族のオーストラリア人でした。放射性炭素年代測定は、約30、000年前からシドニー地域での人間活動の証拠を示していますが、[36]シドニー西部の砂利堆積物で見つかったアボリジニの石器は、45、000年から50、000年前までこの地域に人間の居住地があったことを示しています。 [37] 先住民とイギリス人との最初の出会いは、1770年4月29日、ジェームズ・クック中尉がカーネル半島のボタニー湾に上陸し、グウィーガル氏族に遭遇したときに起こりました。[38] [39] [40]彼は彼の日記の中で、彼らは混乱していて、外国人の訪問者に対して幾分敵対的であると述べた。クックは探検の使命を帯びており、入植を開始するように依頼されていませんでした。彼は続ける前に食物を集めて科学的観察を行うのに短い時間を費やしました Āsā Firippu ga hikiiru shidonī wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no yōroppa hito no nyūshoku-chidearu Igirisu no ryūkeichi to shite setsuritsu sa remashita. Firippu wa, tōmasu taunzendo, dai 1 shishaku shidonī ni chinande wakai ni namae o tsuketa. [12] Nyūsausuu~ēruzu-shū e no ruzai wa, 1842-nen ni shidonī ga toshi to shite hōjin-ka sa reta chokugo ni shūryō shimashita. 1851-Nen ni koronī de gōrudorasshu ga hassei shi,-ji no seiki ni shidonī wa shokuminchi jidai no zenshō kichi kara shuyōna sekai no bunka keizai no chūshinchi ni kawarimashita. Dainijisekaitaisengo, ōkibona ijū o keiken shi, sekai de mottomo tabunkatekina toshi no 1tsu ni narimashita. [3 ] 2011-Nen no kokuseichōsa no jiten de, shidonīde wa 250 wokoeru kotonaru gengo ga hanasa rete imashita. [13] 2016-Nen no kokuseichōsade wa, kyojū-sha no yaku 35. 8-Pāsento ga jitaku de eigoigai no gengo o hanashimashita. [14] Sarani, jinkō no 45. 4-Pāsento ga kaigai de umareta to hōkoku shite ori, kono toshi wa Rondon to nyūyōku ichi ni tsuide sekai de 3-banme ni ōi gaikoku umare no jinkō o motte imasu. [15] [16] Sekai de mottomo kōkana toshi no 1tsudearu nimokakawarazu,[17] shidonī wa, sekai de mottomo sumi yasui toshi no toppu 10 ni hairu koto ga yoku arimasu. [18] [19] [20] Gurōbarizēshon to sekai toshi kenkyū nettowāku ni yotte arufagurōbarushiti to shite bunrui sa rete ori, kono chiiki oyobi sekaijū de no eikyō-ryoku o shimeshite imasu. [21] [22] Keizai-teki kikai de sekai dai 11-i ni ranku sa rete iru [23] shidonī wa, kin'yū, seizō, kankō ni tsuyomi o motsu kōdona shijōkeisei o motte imasu. [24] [25] Shidonī ni wa gaikoku ginkō ya takokusekikigyō ga kanari shūchū shite ori, ōsutoraria no kin'yū shihondeari, ajiataiheiyō chiiki no shuyōna kin'yū habu no 1tsu to shite senden sa rete imasu. [26] [27] 1850-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta shidonī daigaku wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no daigakudeari, sekai o rīdo suru daigaku no 1tsu to minasa rete imasu. [28] Shidonī ni wa, ōsutoraria de mottomo furui toshokandearu nyūsausuu~ēruzu shūritsu toshokan ga 1826-nen ni kaikan shimashita. [29] Shidonī wa, 2000-nen kaki orinpikku nado no shuyōna kokusai supōtsuibento o shusai shite kimashita. Kono toshi wa, sekai de mottomo hōmon sa rete iru toshi no toppu 15 no hitotsudeari [30], maitoshi nan hyaku man-ri mo no kankōkyaku ga toshi no randomāku o mi ni kite imasu. [31] 1, 000, 000 Hekutāru (2 , 500, 000 ēkā) ijō no shizen hogo-ku to kōen o hokoru [32], sono chūmoku subeki shizen no tokuchō ni wa, shidonīhābā, ōritsu kokuritsu kōen, ōritsu shokubutsu-en, kokunai saiko no kōendearu haidopāku ga arimasu. [33] Shidonīhābāburijji ya seikaiisan ni tōroku sa rete iru shidonīoperahausu nado no kenzōbutsu mo, kaigai kara no hōmon-sha ni yoku shira rete imasu. Shutoken ni sābisu o teikyō suru shuyōna ryokaku kūkō wa, sekai de mottomo furui keizoku-teki ni un'ei sa rete iru kūkō no 1tsudearu kingusufōdo - Sumisu kūkōdesu. [34] 1906-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta Chūō-eki wa,-shū de saidai katsu mottomo isogashī tetsudō-ekideari, shinai no tetsudō-mō no shuyōna habudesu. [35] Naiyō 1 rekishi 1. 1 Saisho no jūmin 1. 2 Koronī no kakuritsu 1. 2. 1 Kyōgō 1. 3 Gendai no kaihatsu 1. 3. 119 Seiki 1. 3. 2 20 Seiki – genzai 2 chiri 2. 1 Chikei 2. 2 Chishitsu 2. 3 Ekorojī 2. 4 Kikō 3ttsu no chiiki 3. 1 Kōgai 3. 1. 1 In'nāu~esuto 3. 2 Tōbu kōgai 3. 3 Shidonī nanbu 3. 4 Shidonī hokubu 3. 5 Hiruzu chiku 3. 6 Seibu kōgai 4 toshi kōzō 4. 1 Ākitekucha 4. 2 Jūtaku 4. 3 Kōen to ōpunsupēsu 5 keizai 5. 1 Kigyō shimin 5. 2 Kaseigaku 5. 3 Kin'yū sābisu 5. 4 Seizō 5. 5 Kankō to kokusai kyōiku 6 jinkō tōkei 6. 1 Sosen to imin 6. 2 Gengo 6. 3 Shūkyō 6. 4 Hanzai 7 bunka 7. 1 Kagaku, geijutsu, rekishi 7. 2 Entāteinmento 7. 3 Media 8 supōtsu oyobi autodoākutibiti 8. 1 Chūmoku subeki supōtsu kaijō 9 seifu 9. 1 Rekishi-teki gabanansu 9. 2 Genzai no seifu 10 infurasutorakucha 10. 1 Kyōiku 10. 2 Kenkō 10. 3 Yusō 10. 3. 1 Dōro 10. 3. 2 Basu 10. 3. 3 Romen densha to raitorēru 10. 3. 4 Ressha 10. 3. 5 Ferī 10. 3. 6 Kūkō 10. 4 Kankyōmondai to osen sakugen 10. 5 Yūtiriti 11 kanren kōmoku 12 memo 13 sankō bunken 14 gaibu rinku rekishi omona kiji: Shidonī no rekishi to shidonī no taimu rain saisho no jūmin hīsukōto kokuritsu kōen no kangarū no mokutan-ga. Genzai shidonī to shite shira rete iru chiiki ni saisho ni sunda hitobito wa, ōsutoraria hokubu kara, soshite sono zen ni tōnan'ajia kara ijū shita senjūmin-zoku no ōsutoraria hitodeshita. Hōshasei tanso nendai sokutei wa, yaku 30, 000-nen mae kara shidonī chiiki de no ningen katsudō no shōko o shimeshite imasuga,[36] shidonī seibu no jari taiseki-mono de mitsukatta aborijini no sekki wa, 45, 000-nen kara 50, 000-nen mae made kono chiiki ni ningen no oyaji ga atta koto o shimeshite imasu. [37] Senjūmin to igirisuhito to no saisho no deai wa, 1770-nen 4 tsuki 29-nichi, jēmuzu Kukku chūi ga kāneru hantō no botanī-wan ni jōriku shi, guu~īgaru shizoku ni sōgū shita toki ni okorimashita. [38] [39] [40] Kare wa kare no nikki no naka de, karera wa konran shite ite, gaikoku hito no hōmon-sha ni taishite ikubun tekitai-tekidearu to nobeta. Kukku wa tanken no shimei o obite ori, nyūshoku o kaishi suru yō ni irai sa rete imasendeshita. 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  26. アーサー・フィリップが率いるシドニーは、オーストラリアで最初のヨーロッパ人の入植地であるイギリスの流刑地として設立されました。フィリップは、トーマス・タウンゼンド、第1子爵シドニーにちなんで和解に名前を付けた。[12]ニューサウスウェールズ州への流罪は、1842年にシドニーが都市として法人化された直後に終了しました。1851年にコロニーでゴールドラッシュが発生し、次の世紀にシドニーは植民地時代の前哨基地から主要な世界の文化経済の中心地に変わりました。第二次世界大戦後、大規模な移住を経験し、世界で最も多文化的な都市の1つになりました。[3] 2011年の国勢調査の時点で、シドニーでは250を超える異なる言語が話されていました。[13] 2016年の国勢調査では、居住者の約35.8%が自宅で英語以外の言語を話しました。[14]さらに、人口の45.4%が海外で生まれたと報告しており、この都市はロンドンとニューヨーク市に次いで世界で3番目に多い外国生まれの人口を持っています。[15] [16] 世界で最も高価な都市の1つであるにもかかわらず、[17]シドニーは、世界で最も住みやすい都市のトップ10に入ることがよくあります。[18] [19] [20]グローバリゼーションと世界都市研究ネットワークによってアルファグローバルシティとして分類されており、この地域および世界中での影響力を示しています。[21] [22]経済的機会で世界第11位にランクされている[23]シドニーは、金融、製造、観光に強みを持つ高度な市場経済を持っています。[24] [25]シドニーには外国銀行や多国籍企業がかなり集中しており、オーストラリアの金融資本であり、アジア太平洋地域の主要な金融ハブの1つとして宣伝されています。[26] [27] 1850年に設立されたシドニー大学は、オーストラリアで最初の大学であり、世界をリードする大学の1つと見なされています。[28]シドニーには、オーストラリアで最も古い図書館であるニューサウスウェールズ州立図書館が1826年に開館しました。[29] シドニーは、2000年夏季オリンピックなどの主要な国際スポーツイベントを主催してきました。この都市は、世界で最も訪問されている都市のトップ15のひとつであり[30]、毎年何百万人もの観光客が都市のランドマークを見に来ています。[31] 1,000,000ヘクタール(2,500,000エーカー)以上の自然保護区と公園を誇る[32]、その注目すべき自然の特徴には、シドニーハーバー、王立国立公園、王立植物園、国内最古の公園であるハイドパークがあります。[33]シドニーハーバーブリッジや世界遺産に登録されているシドニーオペラハウスなどの建造物も、海外からの訪問者によく知られています。首都圏にサービスを提供する主要な旅客空港は、世界で最も古い継続的に運営されている空港の1つであるキングスフォード-スミス空港です。[34] 1906年に設立された中央駅は、州で最大かつ最も忙しい鉄道駅であり、市内の鉄道網の主要なハブです。[35] 内容 1歴史 1.1最初の住民 1.2コロニーの確立 1.2.1競合 1.3現代の開発 1.3.119世紀 1.3.2 20世紀–現在 2地理 2.1地形 2.2地質 2.3エコロジー 2.4気候 3つの地域 3.1郊外 3.1.1インナーウェスト 3.2東部郊外 3.3シドニー南部 3.4シドニー北部 3.5ヒルズ地区 3.6西部郊外 4都市構造 4.1アーキテクチャ 4.2住宅 4.3公園とオープンスペース 5経済 5.1企業市民 5.2家政学 5.3金融サービス 5.4製造 5.5観光と国際教育 6人口統計 6.1祖先と移民 6.2言語 6.3宗教 6.4犯罪 7文化 7.1科学、芸術、歴史 7.2エンターテインメント 7.3メディア 8スポーツおよびアウトドアアクティビティ 8.1注目すべきスポーツ会場 9政府 9.1歴史的ガバナンス 9.2現在の政府 10インフラストラクチャ 10.1教育 10.2健康 10.3輸送 10.3.1道路 10.3.2バス 10.3.3路面電車とライトレール 10.3.4列車 10.3.5フェリー 10.3.6空港 10.4環境問題と汚染削減 10.5ユーティリティ 11関連項目 12メモ 13参考文献 14外部リンク 歴史 主な記事:シドニーの歴史とシドニーのタイムライン 最初の住民 ヒースコート国立公園のカンガルーの木炭画。 現在シドニーとして知られている地域に最初に住んだ人々は、オーストラリア北部から、そしてその前に東南アジアから移住した先住民族のオーストラリア人でした。放射性炭素年代測定は、約30、000年前からシドニー地域での人間活動の証拠を示していますが、[36]シドニー西部の砂利堆積物で見つかったアボリジニの石器は、45、000年から50、000年前までこの地域に人間の居住地があったことを示しています。 [37] 先住民とイギリス人との最初の出会いは、1770年4月29日、ジェームズ・クック中尉がカーネル半島のボタニー湾に上陸し、グウィーガル氏族に遭遇したときに起こりました。[38] [39] [40]彼は彼の日記の中で、彼らは混乱していて、外国人の訪問者に対して幾分敵対的であると述べた。クックは探検の使命を帯びており、入植を開始するように依頼されていませんでした。彼は続ける前に食物を集めて科学的観察を行うのに短い時間を費やしました Āsā Firippu ga hikiiru shidonī wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no yōroppa hito no nyūshoku-chidearu Igirisu no ryūkeichi to shite setsuritsu sa remashita. Firippu wa, tōmasu taunzendo, dai 1 shishaku shidonī ni chinande wakai ni namae o tsuketa. [12] Nyūsausuu~ēruzu-shū e no ruzai wa, 1842-nen ni shidonī ga toshi to shite hōjin-ka sa reta chokugo ni shūryō shimashita. 1851-Nen ni koronī de gōrudorasshu ga hassei shi,-ji no seiki ni shidonī wa shokuminchi jidai no zenshō kichi kara shuyōna sekai no bunka keizai no chūshinchi ni kawarimashita. Dainijisekaitaisengo, ōkibona ijū o keiken shi, sekai de mottomo tabunkatekina toshi no 1tsu ni narimashita. [3 ] 2011-Nen no kokuseichōsa no jiten de, shidonīde wa 250 wokoeru kotonaru gengo ga hanasa rete imashita. [13] 2016-Nen no kokuseichōsade wa, kyojū-sha no yaku 35. 8-Pāsento ga jitaku de eigoigai no gengo o hanashimashita. [14] Sarani, jinkō no 45. 4-Pāsento ga kaigai de umareta to hōkoku shite ori, kono toshi wa Rondon to nyūyōku ichi ni tsuide sekai de 3-banme ni ōi gaikoku umare no jinkō o motte imasu. [15] [16] Sekai de mottomo kōkana toshi no 1tsudearu nimokakawarazu,[17] shidonī wa, sekai de mottomo sumi yasui toshi no toppu 10 ni hairu koto ga yoku arimasu. [18] [19] [20] Gurōbarizēshon to sekai toshi kenkyū nettowāku ni yotte arufagurōbarushiti to shite bunrui sa rete ori, kono chiiki oyobi sekaijū de no eikyō-ryoku o shimeshite imasu. [21] [22] Keizai-teki kikai de sekai dai 11-i ni ranku sa rete iru [23] shidonī wa, kin'yū, seizō, kankō ni tsuyomi o motsu kōdona shijōkeisei o motte imasu. [24] [25] Shidonī ni wa gaikoku ginkō ya takokusekikigyō ga kanari shūchū shite ori, ōsutoraria no kin'yū shihondeari, ajiataiheiyō chiiki no shuyōna kin'yū habu no 1tsu to shite senden sa rete imasu. [26] [27] 1850-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta shidonī daigaku wa, ōsutoraria de saisho no daigakudeari, sekai o rīdo suru daigaku no 1tsu to minasa rete imasu. [28] Shidonī ni wa, ōsutoraria de mottomo furui toshokandearu nyūsausuu~ēruzu shūritsu toshokan ga 1826-nen ni kaikan shimashita. [29] Shidonī wa, 2000-nen kaki orinpikku nado no shuyōna kokusai supōtsuibento o shusai shite kimashita. Kono toshi wa, sekai de mottomo hōmon sa rete iru toshi no toppu 15 no hitotsudeari [30], maitoshi nan hyaku man-ri mo no kankōkyaku ga toshi no randomāku o mi ni kite imasu. [31] 1, 000, 000 Hekutāru (2 , 500, 000 ēkā) ijō no shizen hogo-ku to kōen o hokoru [32], sono chūmoku subeki shizen no tokuchō ni wa, shidonīhābā, ōritsu kokuritsu kōen, ōritsu shokubutsu-en, kokunai saiko no kōendearu haidopāku ga arimasu. [33] Shidonīhābāburijji ya seikaiisan ni tōroku sa rete iru shidonīoperahausu nado no kenzōbutsu mo, kaigai kara no hōmon-sha ni yoku shira rete imasu. Shutoken ni sābisu o teikyō suru shuyōna ryokaku kūkō wa, sekai de mottomo furui keizoku-teki ni un'ei sa rete iru kūkō no 1tsudearu kingusufōdo - Sumisu kūkōdesu. [34] 1906-Nen ni setsuritsu sa reta Chūō-eki wa,-shū de saidai katsu mottomo isogashī tetsudō-ekideari, shinai no tetsudō-mō no shuyōna habudesu. [35] Naiyō 1 rekishi 1. 1 Saisho no jūmin 1. 2 Koronī no kakuritsu 1. 2. 1 Kyōgō 1. 3 Gendai no kaihatsu 1. 3. 119 Seiki 1. 3. 2 20 Seiki – genzai 2 chiri 2. 1 Chikei 2. 2 Chishitsu 2. 3 Ekorojī 2. 4 Kikō 3ttsu no chiiki 3. 1 Kōgai 3. 1. 1 In'nāu~esuto 3. 2 Tōbu kōgai 3. 3 Shidonī nanbu 3. 4 Shidonī hokubu 3. 5 Hiruzu chiku 3. 6 Seibu kōgai 4 toshi kōzō 4. 1 Ākitekucha 4. 2 Jūtaku 4. 3 Kōen to ōpunsupēsu 5 keizai 5. 1 Kigyō shimin 5. 2 Kaseigaku 5. 3 Kin'yū sābisu 5. 4 Seizō 5. 5 Kankō to kokusai kyōiku 6 jinkō tōkei 6. 1 Sosen to imin 6. 2 Gengo 6. 3 Shūkyō 6. 4 Hanzai 7 bunka 7. 1 Kagaku, geijutsu, rekishi 7. 2 Entāteinmento 7. 3 Media 8 supōtsu oyobi autodoākutibiti 8. 1 Chūmoku subeki supōtsu kaijō 9 seifu 9. 1 Rekishi-teki gabanansu 9. 2 Genzai no seifu 10 infurasutorakucha 10. 1 Kyōiku 10. 2 Kenkō 10. 3 Yusō 10. 3. 1 Dōro 10. 3. 2 Basu 10. 3. 3 Romen densha to raitorēru 10. 3. 4 Ressha 10. 3. 5 Ferī 10. 3. 6 Kūkō 10. 4 Kankyōmondai to osen sakugen 10. 5 Yūtiriti 11 kanren kōmoku 12 memo 13 sankō bunken 14 gaibu rinku rekishi omona kiji: Shidonī no rekishi to shidonī no taimu rain saisho no jūmin hīsukōto kokuritsu kōen no kangarū no mokutan-ga. Genzai shidonī to shite shira rete iru chiiki ni saisho ni sunda hitobito wa, ōsutoraria hokubu kara, soshite sono zen ni tōnan'ajia kara ijū shita senjūmin-zoku no ōsutoraria hitodeshita. Hōshasei tanso nendai sokutei wa, yaku 30, 000-nen mae kara shidonī chiiki de no ningen katsudō no shōko o shimeshite imasuga,[36] shidonī seibu no jari taiseki-mono de mitsukatta aborijini no sekki wa, 45, 000-nen kara 50, 000-nen mae made kono chiiki ni ningen no oyaji ga atta koto o shimeshite imasu. [37] Senjūmin to igirisuhito to no saisho no deai wa, 1770-nen 4 tsuki 29-nichi, jēmuzu Kukku chūi ga kāneru hantō no botanī-wan ni jōriku shi, guu~īgaru shizoku ni sōgū shita toki ni okorimashita. [38] [39] [40] Kare wa kare no nikki no naka de, karera wa konran shite ite, gaikoku hito no hōmon-sha ni taishite ikubun tekitai-tekidearu to nobeta. Kukku wa tanken no shimei o obite ori, nyūshoku o kaishi suru yō ni irai sa rete imasendeshita. Kare wa tsudzukeru mae ni shokumotsu o atsumete kagaku-teki kansatsu o okonau no ni mijikai jikan o tsuiyashimashita Show more

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  27. led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the settlement after Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney.[12] Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, and over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world.[3] At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney.[13] In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home.[14] Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, and the city has the third-largest foreign-born population of any city in the world after London and New York City.[15][16] Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world,[17] Sydney frequently ranks in the top ten most liveable cities in the world.[18][19][20] It is classified as an Alpha Global City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.[21][22] Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity,[23] Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing and tourism.[24][25] There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs.[26][27] Established in 1850, the University of Sydney was Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities.[28] Sydney is also home to the oldest library in Australia, the State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826.[29] Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics. The city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world,[30] with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks.[31] Boasting over 1,000,000 ha (2,500,000 acres) of nature reserves and parks,[32] its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.[33] Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are also well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports.[34] Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network.[35] Contents 1 History 1.1 First inhabitants 1.2 Establishment of the colony 1.2.1 Conflicts 1.3 Modern development 1.3.1 19th century 1.3.2 20th century–present 2 Geography 2.1 Topography 2.2 Geology 2.3 Ecology 2.4 Climate 3 Regions 3.1 Inner suburbs 3.1.1 Inner West 3.2 Eastern suburbs 3.3 Southern Sydney 3.4 Northern Sydney 3.5 Hills district 3.6 Western suburbs 4 Urban structure 4.1 Architecture 4.2 Housing 4.3 Parks and open spaces 5 Economy 5.1 Corporate citizens 5.2 Domestic economics 5.3 Financial services 5.4 Manufacturing 5.5 Tourism and international education 6 Demographics 6.1 Ancestry and immigration 6.2 Language 6.3 Religion 6.4 Crime 7 Culture 7.1 Science, art, and history 7.2 Entertainment 7.3 Media 8 Sport and outdoor activities 8.1 Notable sporting venues 9 Government 9.1 Historical governance 9.2 Government in the present 10 Infrastructure 10.1 Education 10.2 Health 10.3 Transport 10.3.1 Roads 10.3.2 Buses 10.3.3 Trams and light rail 10.3.4 Trains 10.3.5 Ferries 10.3.6 Airports 10.4 Environmental issues and pollution reduction 10.5 Utilities 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links History Main articles: History of Sydney and Timeline of Sydney First inhabitants Charcoal drawing of kangaroos in Heathcote National Park. The first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians who had migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. While radiocarbon dating has shown evidence of human activity in the Sydney area from around 30,000 years ago,[36] Aboriginal stone tools found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments indicate there was human settlement in the region from as far back as 45,000 to 50,000 years BP.[37] The first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.[38][39][40] He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors.[38] Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement. He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British, there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.[41] The earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place".[42] Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan.[41] The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, and cooking fish.[38] Establishment of the colony The Founding of Australia, 26 January 1788, by Captain Arthur Phillip R.N., Sydney Cove. Painting by Algernon Talmage. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies. That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years earlier.[12] Captain Phillip led the First Fleet of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of freshwater. He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788.[43][44] This was to be the location for the new colony. Phillip described Port Jackson as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world".[45] The colony was at first to be titled "New Albion" (after Albion, another name for Great Britain), but Phillip decided on "Sydney".The official proclamation and naming of the colony happened on 7 February 1788. Lieutenant William Dawes produced a town plan in 1790 but it was ignored by the colony's leaders. Sydney's layout today reflects this lack of planning.[46] Between 1788 and 1792, 3,546 male and 766 female convicts were landed at Sydney—many "professional criminals" with few of the skills required for the establishment of a colony. The food situation reached crisis point in 1790. Early efforts at agriculture were fraught and supplies from overseas were scarce. From 1791 on, however, the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of trade lessened the feeling of isolation and improved supplies.[47] The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity. Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging.[48] Phillip sent exploratory missions in search of better soils and fixed on the Parramatta region as a promising area for expansion and moved many of the convicts from late 1788 to establish a small township, which became the main centre of the colony's economic life, leaving Sydney Cove only as an important port and focus of social life. Poor equipment and unfamiliar soils and climate continued to hamper the expansion of farming from Farm Cove to Parramatta and Toongabbie, but a building programme, assisted by convict labour, advanced steadily.[49] Thomas Watling's View of Sydney Cove, circa 1794-1796 Officers and convicts alike faced starvation as supplies ran low and little could be cultivated from the land.[50] The region's indigenous population was also suffering. It is estimated that half of the native people in Sydney died during the smallpox epidemic of 1789.[41][51] Enlightened for his age, Phillip's personal intent was to establish harmonious relations with local Aboriginal people and try to reform as well as discipline the convicts of the colony. Phillip and several of his officers – most notably Watkin Tench – left behind journals and accounts which tell of immense hardships during the first years of settlement.[52] Part of Macquarie's effort to transform the colony was his authorisation for convicts to re-enter society as free citizens.[52] Roads, bridges, wharves, and public buildings were constructed using convict labour and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, and well-established thoroughfares. Parramatta Road was opened in 1811, which is one of Sydney's oldest roads and Australia's first highway between two cities – Sydney (present day city centre) and Parramatta.[53] Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation.[48] Between 1788 and 1792, convicts and their jailers made up the majority of the population; in one generation, however, a population of emancipated convicts who could be granted land began to grow. These people pioneered Sydney's private sector economy and were later joined by soldiers whose military service had expired, and later still by free settlers who began arriving from Britain. Governor Phillip departed the colony for England on 11 December 1792, with the new settlement having survived near starvation and immense isolation for four years.[54] Conflicts The Castle Hill convict rebellion of 1804. Between 1790 and 1816, Sydney became one of the many sites of the Australian Frontier Wars, a series of conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the resisting Indigenous clans.[55] In 1790, when the British established farms along the Hawkesbury River, an Aboriginal leader Pemulwuy resisted the Europeans by waging a guerrilla-style warfare on the settlers in a series of wars known as the Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars which took place in western Sydney. He raided farms until Governor Macquarie dispatched troops from the British Army 46th Regiment in 1816 and ended the conflict by killing 14 Indigenous Australians in a raid on their campsite.[56][57] In 1804, Irish convicts led the Castle Hill Rebellion, a rebellion by convicts against colonial authority in the Castle Hill area of the British colony of New South Wales. The first and only major convict uprising in Australian history suppressed under martial law, the rebellion ended in a battle fought between convicts and the colonial forces of Australia at Rouse Hill.[58] The Rum Rebellion of 1808 was the only successful armed takeover of government in Australian history, where the Governor of New South Wales, William Bligh, was ousted by the New South Wales Corps under the command of Major George Johnston, who led the rebellion. Conflicts arose between the governors and the officers of the Rum Corps, many of which were land owners such as John Macarthur. Modern development 19th century Aerial illustration of Sydney, 1888 Early Sydney was moulded by the hardship suffered by early settlers. In the early years, drought and disease caused widespread problems, but the situation soon improved. The military colonial government was reliant on the army, the New South Wales Corps. Macquarie served as the last autocratic Governor of New South Wales, from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social and economic development of Sydney which saw it transition from a penal colony to a budding free society. He established public works, a bank, churches, and charitable institutions and sought good relations with the Aborigines. Victorian Sydney Over the course of the 19th-century Sydney established many of its major cultural institutions. Governor Lachlan Macquarie's vision for Sydney included the construction of grand public buildings and institutions fit for a colonial capital. Macquarie Street began to take shape as a ceremonial thoroughfare of grand buildings. The year 1840 was the final year of convict transportation to Sydney, which by this time had a population of 35,000.[43][48] Gold was discovered in the colony in 1851 and with it came thousands of people seeking their fortune.[43][59] Sydney's population reached 200,000 by 1871 and during this time the city entered a period of prosperity which was reflected in the construction of grand edifices. Temperance coffee palaces, hotels as well as other civic buildings such as libraries and museums were erected in the city.[60][61][62] Demand for infrastructure to support the growing population and subsequent economic activity led to massive improvements to the city's railway and port systems throughout the 1850s and 1860s.[63] After a period of rapid growth, further discoveries of gold in Victoria began drawing new residents away from Sydney towards Melbourne in the 1850s, which created a historically strong rivalry between Sydney and Melbourne.[64][65][66] Nevertheless, Sydney exceeded Melbourne's population in the early twentieth century and remains Australia's largest city.[6][67] Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies agreed to form the Commonwealth of Australia. Sydney's beaches had become popular seaside holiday resorts, but daylight sea bathing was considered indecent until the early 20th century.[49] 20th century–present A tramcar on George Street in 1920. Sydney once had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire. Under the reign of Queen Victoria federation of the six colonies occurred on 1 January 1901. Sydney, with a population of 481,000, then became the state capital of New South Wales. The Great Depression of the 1930s had a severe effect on Sydney's economy, as it did with most cities throughout the industrial world. For much of the 1930s up to one in three breadwinners were unemployed.[68] Construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge served to alleviate some of the effects of the economic downturn by employing 1,400 men between 1924 and 1932.[69] The population continued to boom despite the Depression, having reached 1 million in 1925.[63] The city had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire until it was dismantled in 1961. Sydney Harbour Bridge opening day 19 March 1932 When Britain declared war on Germany in 1939, Australia also entered. During the war, Sydney experienced a surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a wartime economy. Far from mass unemployment, there were now labour shortages and women becoming active in male roles. Sydney's harbour was attacked by the Japanese in May and June 1942 with a direct attack from Japanese submarines with some loss of life.[70] Households throughout the city had built air raid shelters and performed drills. Consequently, Sydney experienced population growth and increased cultural diversification throughout the post-war period. The people of Sydney warmly welcomed Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 when the reigning monarch stepped onto Australian soil for the first time to commence her Australian Royal Tour.[71] Having arrived on the Royal Yacht Britannia through Sydney Heads, Her Majesty came ashore at Farm Cove. There were 1.7 million people living in Sydney in 1950 and almost 3 million by 1975. The Australian government launched a large scale multicultural immigration program. Sydney hosted the 2000 Summer Olympics. New industries such as information technology, education, financial services and the arts have risen. Sydney's iconic Opera House was opened in 1973 by Her Majesty. A new skyline of concrete and steel skyscrapers swept away much of the old lowrise and often sandstone skyline of the city in the 1960s and 1970s, with Australia Square being the tallest building in Sydney from its completion in 1967 until 1976 and is also notable for being the first skyscraper in Australia.[72] This prolific growth of contemporary high-rise architecture was put in check by heritage laws in the 1990s onwards, which prevent the demolition of any structure deemed historically significant. Since the 1970s Sydney has undergone a rapid economic and social transformation. As a result, the city has become a cosmopolitan melting pot. To relieve congestion on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel opened in August 1992. The 2000 Summer Olympics were held in Sydney and became known as the "best Olympic Games ever" by the President of the International Olympic Committee.[73] Sydney has maintained extensive political, economic and cultural influence over Australia as well as international renown in recent decades. Following the Olympics, the city hosted the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the APEC Australia 2007 and Catholic World Youth Day 2008, led by Pope Benedict XVI. Geography Main article: Geography of Sydney Topography Sydney lies on a submergent coastline where the ocean level has risen to flood deep rias. Sydney is a coastal basin with the Tasman Sea to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north, and the Woronora Plateau to the south. The inner city measures 25 square kilometres (10 square miles), the Greater Sydney region covers 12,367 square kilometres (4,775 square miles), and the city's urban area is 1,687 square kilometres (651 square miles) in size.[74][75][76] Sydney spans two geographic regions. The Cumberland Plain lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat. The Hornsby Plateau is located to the north and is dissected by steep valleys. The flat areas of the south were the first to be developed as the city grew. It was not until the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge that the northern reaches of the coast became more heavily populated. Seventy beaches can be found along its coastline with Bondi Beach being one of the most famous. The Nepean River wraps around the western edge of the city and becomes the Hawkesbury River before reaching Broken Bay. Most of Sydney's water storages can be found on tributaries of the Nepean River. The Parramatta River is mostly industrial and drains a large area of Sydney's western suburbs into Port Jackson. The southern parts of the city are drained by the Georges River and the Cooks River into Botany Bay. According to calculations by the Senseable City Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 25.9% of Sydney is covered by trees, making it the third largest city in the world with the most trees after Singapore and Oslo, respectively, tying with Vancouver.[77] Geology Almost all of the exposed rocks around Sydney are Sydney sandstone. Sydney is made up of mostly Triassic rock with some recent igneous dykes and volcanic necks. The Sydney Basin was formed when the Earth's crust expanded, subsided, and filled with sediment in the early Triassic period.[78] The sand that was to become the sandstone of today was washed there by rivers from the south and northwest and laid down between 360 and 200 million years ago. The sandstone has shale lenses and fossil riverbeds.[78] The Sydney Basin bioregion includes coastal features of cliffs, beaches, and estuaries. Deep river valleys known as rias were carved during the Triassic period in the Hawkesbury sandstone of the coastal region where Sydney now lies. The rising sea level between 18,000 and 6,000 years ago flooded the rias to form estuaries and deep harbours.[78] Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is one such ria.[79] Sydney features two major soil types; sandy soils (which originate from the Hawkesbury sandstone) and clay (which are from shales and volcanic rocks), though some soils may be a mixture of the two.[80] Directly overlying the older Hawkesbury sandstone is the Wianamatta shale, a geological feature found in western Sydney that was deposited in connection with a large river delta during the Middle Triassic period which shifted over time from west to east. The Wianamatta shale generally comprises fine grained sedimentary rocks such as shales, mudstones, ironstones, siltstones and laminites, with less common sandstone units.[81] The Wianamatta Group is made up of the following units (listed in stratigraphic order): Bringelly Shale, Minchinbury Sandstone and Ashfield Shale.[82] Ecology Further information: Ecology of Sydney Typical grassy woodland in the Sydney area. The most prevalent plant communities in the Sydney region are open grassy woodlands[83] and some pockets of dry sclerophyll forests,[84] which consist of eucalyptus trees, casuarinas, melaleucas, corymbias and angophoras, with shrubs (typically wattles, callistemons, grevilleas and banksias), and a semi-continuous grass in the understory.[85] The plants in this community tend to have rough and spiky leaves, as they're grown in areas with low soil fertility. Sydney also features a few areas of wet sclerophyll forests which are found in the wetter, elevated areas in the north and the northeast. These forests are defined by straight, tall tree canopies with a moist understory of soft-leaved shrubs, tree ferns and herbs.[86] Sydney is home to dozens of bird species,[87] which commonly include the Australian raven, Australian magpie, crested pigeon, noisy miner and the pied currawong, among others. Introduced bird species ubiquitously found in Sydney are the common myna, common starling, house sparrow and the spotted dove.[88] Reptile species are also numerous and predominantly include skinks.[89][90] Sydney has a few mammal and spider species, such as the grey-headed flying fox and the Sydney funnel-web, respectively,[91][92] and has a huge diversity of marine species inhabiting its harbour and many beaches.[93] Climate Main article: Climate of Sydney Sydney, New South Wales Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D 91 2820 132 2720 118 2618 114 2415 101 2112 142 1810 80 189 75 1910 63 2212 68 2315 91 2417 73 2618 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Imperial conversion Autumn foliage in May Under the classic system Sydney has a temperate climate but under the Köppen–Geiger classification, Sydney has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).[94] The Australian Bureau of Statistics describes the summers as "warm [and] sometimes hot", and the winters as "cool", with uniform rainfall throughout the year.[95] At Sydney's primary weather station at Observatory Hill, extreme temperatures have ranged from 45.8 °C (114.4 °F) on 18 January 2013 to 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) on 22 June 1932.[96][97][98] An average of 14.9 days a year have temperatures at or above 30 °C (86 °F) in the central business district (CBD).[99] In contrast, the metropolitan area averages between 35 and 65 days, depending on the suburb.[100] The highest minimum temperature recorded at Observatory Hill is 27.6 °C (82 °F), on 6 February 2011, while the lowest maximum temperature is 7.7 °C (46 °F), recorded on 19 July 1868.[99] The hottest day in the Sydney metropolitan area occurred in Penrith on 4 January 2020, where a high of 48.9 °C (120.0 °F) was recorded.[101] The average annual temperature of the sea ranges from 18.5 °C (65.3 °F) in September to 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) in February.[102] Sydney has an average of 7.2 hours of sunshine per day[103] and 109.5 clear days annually.[104] The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs.[99] Sydney experiences an urban heat island effect.[105] This makes certain parts of the city more vulnerable to extreme heat, including coastal suburbs.[105][106] In late spring and summer, temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are not uncommon,[107] though hot, dry conditions are usually ended by a southerly buster,[108] a powerful southerly that brings gale winds and a rapid fall in temperature.[109] Since Sydney borders the Great Dividing Range, it can occasionally experience dry, westerly Föhn-like winds usually between winter and spring, as it lies on the leeward side of the ranges, thereby elevating fire danger in the region.[110][111] Due to the inland location, frost is recorded early in the morning in Western Sydney a few times in winter. Autumn and spring are the transitional seasons, with spring showing a larger temperature variation than autumn.[112] The Bureau of Meteorology reported that 2002 to 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859.[113] The summer of 2007–08, however, proved to be the coolest since 1996–97 and is the only summer this century to be at or below average in temperatures.[114] In 2009, dry conditions brought a severe dust storm towards eastern Australia.[115][116] The El Niño–Southern Oscillation, the Indian Ocean Dipole and the Southern Annular Mode[117][118] play an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, which tend to occur during the spring and summer.[119][120] A summer thunderstorm over the city taken from Potts Point, 1991. The rainfall has a moderate to low variability and it is spread through the months, though it has been erratic in recent times.[121][122] Even in its months of highest rainfall, Sydney has relatively few rainy days, with an average mean of 7 to 8 rainy days per month on the 1 mm (0.04 in) threshold. Precipitation is usually higher in late summer through to early winter when the subtropical ridge is to the south of Australia, permitting easterly winds to dominate, and lower in late winter to early spring when the subtropical ridge is to the north, as it brings dry winds from the continent's interior towards the city, since it rotates counter-clockwise.[117][123][99][124] From 1990 to 1999, Sydney received around 20 thunderstorms per year.[125] In late autumn and winter, east coast lows may bring large amounts of rainfall, especially in the CBD.[126] In spring and summer, black nor'easters are usually the cause of heavy rain events, though other forms of low-pressure areas may also bring heavy deluge and afternoon thunderstorms.[127] Depending on the wind direction, summer weather may be humid or dry, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher average humidity and dewpoints than late spring/early summer. In summer, most rain falls from thunderstorms and in winter from cold fronts.[128] Snowfall was last reported in the Sydney City area in 1836, while a fall of graupel, or soft hail, was mistaken by many for snow, in July 2008.[129] The city is rarely affected by cyclones, although remnants of ex-cyclones do affect the city. The city is also prone to severe storms. One such storm was the 1999 hailstorm, which produced massive hailstones up to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter.[130] vte Climate data for Sydney (Observatory Hill) 1991–2020 averages, 1861–present extremes Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 45.8 (114.4) 42.1 (107.8) 39.8 (103.6) 35.4 (95.7) 30.0 (86.0) 26.9 (80.4) 26.5 (79.7) 31.3 (88.3) 34.6 (94.3) 38.2 (100.8) 41.8 (107.2) 42.2 (108.0) 45.8 (114.4) Average high °C (°F) 27.0 (80.6) 26.8 (80.2) 25.7 (78.3) 23.6 (74.5) 20.9 (69.6) 18.2 (64.8) 17.9 (64.2) 19.3 (66.7) 21.6 (70.9) 23.2 (73.8) 24.2 (75.6) 25.7 (78.3) 22.8 (73.0) Average low °C (°F) 20.0 (68.0) 19.9 (67.8) 18.4 (65.1) 15.3 (59.5) 12.3 (54.1) 10.0 (50.0) 8.9 (48.0) 9.7 (49.5) 12.3 (54.1) 14.6 (58.3) 16.6 (61.9) 18.4 (65.1) 14.7 (58.5) Record low °C (°F) 10.6 (51.1) 9.6 (49.3) 9.3 (48.7) 7.0 (44.6) 4.4 (39.9) 2.1 (35.8) 2.2 (36.0) 2.7 (36.9) 4.9 (40.8) 5.7 (42.3) 7.7 (45.9) 9.1 (48.4) 2.1 (35.8) Average rainfall mm (inches) 91.1 (3.59) 131.5 (5.18) 117.5 (4.63) 114.1 (4.49) 100.8 (3.97) 142.0 (5.59) 80.3 (3.16) 75.1 (2.96) 63.4 (2.50) 67.7 (2.67) 90.6 (3.57) 73.0 (2.87) 1,147.1 (45.16) Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 8.2 9.0 10.1 7.9 7.9 9.3 7.2 5.6 5.8 7.6 8.7 7.9 95.2 Average afternoon relative humidity (%) 60 62 59 58 58 56 52 47 49 53 57 58 56 Average dew point °C (°F) 16.5 (61.7) 17.2 (63.0) 15.4 (59.7) 12.7 (54.9) 10.3 (50.5) 7.8 (46.0) 6.1 (43.0) 5.4 (41.7) 7.8 (46.0) 10.2 (50.4) 12.6 (54.7) 14.6 (58.3) 11.4 (52.5) Mean monthly sunshine hours 232.5 205.9 210.8 213.0 204.6 171.0 207.7 248.0 243.0 244.9 222.0 235.6 2,639 Percent possible sunshine 53 54 56 61 59 60 65 72 66 61 55 55 60 Average ultraviolet index 12 11 9 6 3 2 3 4 5 8 10 12 7 Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology[131][132] Source 2: Bureau of Meteorology, Sydney Airport (sunshine hours);[133] Weather Atlas (average UV index)[134] Regions See also: Regions of Sydney Satellite photo of the Sydney area at night. Wollongong can be seen at bottom left, while Gosford and the Central Coast are visible at the far right. The regions of Sydney include the CBD or City of Sydney (colloquially referred to as 'the City') and Inner West, the Eastern Suburbs, Southern Sydney, Greater Western Sydney (including the South-west, Hills District and the Macarthur Region), and the Northern Suburbs (including the North Shore and Northern Beaches). The Greater Sydney Commission divides Sydney into five districts based on the 33 LGAs in the metropolitan area; the Western City, the Central City, the Eastern City, the North District, and the South District.[135] The Australian Bureau of Statistics includes City of Central Coast (the former Gosford City and Wyong Shire) as part of Greater Sydney for population counts.[136] This adds another 330,000 people to the metropolitan area covered by Greater Sydney Commission.[137] Recent statements by the state government (on the topic of the COVID-19 pandemic) have included the Blue Mountains, the Central Coast, and Wollongong as parts of Greater Sydney.[138] Inner suburbs Oxford Street in Darlinghurst The CBD extends about 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) south from Sydney Cove. It is bordered by Farm Cove within the Royal Botanic Garden to the east and Darling Harbour to the west. Suburbs surrounding the CBD include Woolloomooloo and Potts Point to the east, Surry Hills and Darlinghurst to the south, Pyrmont and Ultimo to the west, and Millers Point and The Rocks to the north. Most of these suburbs measure less than 1 square kilometre (0.4 square miles) in area. The Sydney CBD is characterised by considerably narrow streets and thoroughfares, created in its convict beginnings in the 18th century.[139] Anzac Bridge, spanning Johnstons Bay, links western suburbs to the CBD. Several localities, distinct from suburbs, exist throughout Sydney's inner reaches. Central and Circular Quay are transport hubs with ferry, rail, and bus interchanges. Chinatown, Darling Harbour, and Kings Cross are important locations for culture, tourism, and recreation. The Strand Arcade, which is located between Pitt Street Mall and George Street, is a historical Victorian-style shopping arcade. Opened on 1 April 1892, its shop fronts are an exact replica of the original internal shopping facades.[140] Westfield Sydney, located beneath the Sydney Tower, is the largest shopping centre by area in Sydney.[141] A typical inner-city street. Pictured: Paddington There is a long trend of gentrification amongst Sydney's inner suburbs. Pyrmont located on the harbour was redeveloped from a centre of shipping and international trade to an area of high density housing, tourist accommodation, and gambling.[142] Originally located well outside of the city, Darlinghurst is the location of the historic, former Darlinghurst Gaol, manufacturing, and mixed housing. It had a period when it was known as an area of prostitution. The terrace style housing has largely been retained and Darlinghurst has undergone significant gentrification since the 1980s.[143][144][145] Green Square is a former industrial area of Waterloo which is undergoing urban renewal worth $8 billion. On the city harbour edge, the historic suburb and wharves of Millers Point are being built up as the new area of Barangaroo. The enforced rehousing of local residents due to the Millers Point/Barangaroo development has caused significant controversy despite the $6 billion worth of economic activity it is expected to generate.[146][147] The suburb of Paddington is a well known suburb for its streets of restored terrace houses, Victoria Barracks, and shopping including the weekly Oxford Street markets.[148] Inner West King Street in Newtown is one of the most complete Victorian and Edwardian era commercial precincts in Australia. The Inner West generally includes the Inner West Council, Municipality of Burwood, Municipality of Strathfield, and City of Canada Bay. These span up to about 11 km west of the CBD. Suburbs in the Inner West have historically housed working class industrial workers, but have undergone gentrification over the 20th century. The region now mainly features medium- and high-density housing. Major features in the area include the University of Sydney and the Parramatta River, as well as a large cosmopolitan community and the nightlife hub on King Street in Newtown. The Anzac Bridge spans Johnstons Bay and connects Rozelle to Pyrmont and the City, forming part of the Western Distributor. The area is serviced by the T1, T2, and T3 railway lines, including the Main Suburban Line; which is the first to be constructed in New South Wales. Strathfield Railway Station is a secondary railway hub within Sydney, and major station on the Suburban and Northern lines. It was constructed in 1876,[149] and will be a future terminus of Parramatta Light Rail.[150] The area is also serviced by numerous bus routes and cycleways.[151] Other shopping centres in the area include Westfield Burwood and DFO in Homebush. Eastern suburbs Sydney skyline as viewed from Tasman Sea, overlooking the clifftop suburb of Vaucluse. The Eastern Suburbs encompass the Municipality of Woollahra, the City of Randwick, the Waverley Municipal Council, and parts of the Bayside Council. The Greater Sydney Commission envisions a resident population of 1,338,250 people by 2036 in its Eastern City District (including the City and Inner West).[152] They include some of the most affluent and advantaged areas in the country, with some streets being amongst the most expensive in the world. Wolseley Road, in Point Piper, has a top price of $20,900 per square metre, making it the ninth-most expensive street in the world.[153] More than 75% of neighbourhoods in the Electoral District of Wentworth fall under the top decile of SEIFA advantage, making it the least disadvantaged area in the country.[154] Major landmarks include Bondi Beach, a major tourist site; which was added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2008;[155] and Bondi Junction, featuring a Westfield shopping centre and an estimated office work force of 6,400 by 2035,[156] as well as a train station on the T4 Eastern Suburbs Line. The suburb of Randwick contains the Randwick Racecourse, the Royal Hospital for Women, the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney Children's Hospital, and the UNSW Kensington Campus. Randwick's 'Collaboration Area' has a baseline estimate of 32,000 jobs by 2036, according to the Greater Sydney Commission.[157] Construction of the CBD and South East Light Rail was completed in April 2020.[158] Main construction was due to be completed in 2018 but was delayed until 2020.[159] The project aims to provide reliable and high-capacity tram services to residents in the City and South-East. Major shopping centres in the area include Westfield Bondi Junction and Westfield Eastgardens. Southern Sydney Kurnell, La Perouse, Cronulla, along with various other suburbs face Botany Bay. Southern Sydney includes the suburbs in the local government areas of former Rockdale, Georges River Council (collectively known as the St George area), and broadly it also includes the suburbs in the local government area of Sutherland, south of the Georges River (colloquially known as 'The Shire'). The Kurnell peninsula, near Botany Bay, is the site of the first landfall on the eastern coastline made by Lt. (later Captain) James Cook in 1770. La Perouse, a historic suburb named after the French navigator Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse (1741–88), is notable for its old military outpost at Bare Island and the Botany Bay National Park. The suburb of Cronulla in southern Sydney is close to Royal National Park, Australia's oldest national park. Hurstville, a large suburb with a multitude of commercial buildings and high-rise residential buildings dominating the skyline, has become a CBD for the southern suburbs.[160] Northern Sydney Further information: Northern Sydney Chatswood is a major commercial district. 'Northern Sydney' may also include the suburbs in the Upper North Shore, Lower North Shore and the Northern Beaches. The Northern Suburbs include several landmarks – M

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  28. led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the settlement after Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney.[12] Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, and over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world.[3] At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney.[13] In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home.[14] Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, and the city has the third-largest foreign-born population of any city in the world after London and New York City.[15][16] Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world,[17] Sydney frequently ranks in the top ten most liveable cities in the world.[18][19][20] It is classified as an Alpha Global City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.[21][22] Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity,[23] Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing and tourism.[24][25] There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs.[26][27] Established in 1850, the University of Sydney was Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities.[28] Sydney is also home to the oldest library in Australia, the State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826.[29] Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics. The city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world,[30] with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks.[31] Boasting over 1,000,000 ha (2,500,000 acres) of nature reserves and parks,[32] its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.[33] Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are also well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports.[34] Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network.[35] Contents 1 History 1.1 First inhabitants 1.2 Establishment of the colony 1.2.1 Conflicts 1.3 Modern development 1.3.1 19th century 1.3.2 20th century–present 2 Geography 2.1 Topography 2.2 Geology 2.3 Ecology 2.4 Climate 3 Regions 3.1 Inner suburbs 3.1.1 Inner West 3.2 Eastern suburbs 3.3 Southern Sydney 3.4 Northern Sydney 3.5 Hills district 3.6 Western suburbs 4 Urban structure 4.1 Architecture 4.2 Housing 4.3 Parks and open spaces 5 Economy 5.1 Corporate citizens 5.2 Domestic economics 5.3 Financial services 5.4 Manufacturing 5.5 Tourism and international education 6 Demographics 6.1 Ancestry and immigration 6.2 Language 6.3 Religion 6.4 Crime 7 Culture 7.1 Science, art, and history 7.2 Entertainment 7.3 Media 8 Sport and outdoor activities 8.1 Notable sporting venues 9 Government 9.1 Historical governance 9.2 Government in the present 10 Infrastructure 10.1 Education 10.2 Health 10.3 Transport 10.3.1 Roads 10.3.2 Buses 10.3.3 Trams and light rail 10.3.4 Trains 10.3.5 Ferries 10.3.6 Airports 10.4 Environmental issues and pollution reduction 10.5 Utilities 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links History Main articles: History of Sydney and Timeline of Sydney First inhabitants Charcoal drawing of kangaroos in Heathcote National Park. The first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians who had migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. While radiocarbon dating has shown evidence of human activity in the Sydney area from around 30,000 years ago,[36] Aboriginal stone tools found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments indicate there was human settlement in the region from as far back as 45,000 to 50,000 years BP.[37] The first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.[38][39][40] He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors.[38] Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement. He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British, there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.[41] The earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place".[42] Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan.[41] The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, and cooking fish.[38] Establishment of the colony The Founding of Australia, 26 January 1788, by Captain Arthur Phillip R.N., Sydney Cove. Painting by Algernon Talmage. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies. That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years earlier.[12] Captain Phillip led the First Fleet of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of freshwater. He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788.[43][44] This was to be the location for the new colony. Phillip described Port Jackson as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world".[45] The colony was at first to be titled "New Albion" (after Albion, another name for Great Britain), but Phillip decided on "Sydney".The official proclamation and naming of the colony happened on 7 February 1788. Lieutenant William Dawes produced a town plan in 1790 but it was ignored by the colony's leaders. Sydney's layout today reflects this lack of planning.[46] Between 1788 and 1792, 3,546 male and 766 female convicts were landed at Sydney—many "professional criminals" with few of the skills required for the establishment of a colony. The food situation reached crisis point in 1790. Early efforts at agriculture were fraught and supplies from overseas were scarce. From 1791 on, however, the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of trade lessened the feeling of isolation and improved supplies.[47] The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity. Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging.[48] Phillip sent exploratory missions in search of better soils and fixed on the Parramatta region as a promising area for expansion and moved many of the convicts from late 1788 to establish a small township, which became the main centre of the colony's economic life, leaving Sydney Cove only as an important port and focus of social life. Poor equipment and unfamiliar soils and climate continued to hamper the expansion of farming from Farm Cove to Parramatta and Toongabbie, but a building programme, assisted by convict labour, advanced steadily.[49] Thomas Watling's View of Sydney Cove, circa 1794-1796 Officers and convicts alike faced starvation as supplies ran low and little could be cultivated from the land.[50] The region's indigenous population was also suffering. It is estimated that half of the native people in Sydney died during the smallpox epidemic of 1789.[41][51] Enlightened for his age, Phillip's personal intent was to establish harmonious relations with local Aboriginal people and try to reform as well as discipline the convicts of the colony. Phillip and several of his officers – most notably Watkin Tench – left behind journals and accounts which tell of immense hardships during the first years of settlement.[52] Part of Macquarie's effort to transform the colony was his authorisation for convicts to re-enter society as free citizens.[52] Roads, bridges, wharves, and public buildings were constructed using convict labour and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, and well-established thoroughfares. Parramatta Road was opened in 1811, which is one of Sydney's oldest roads and Australia's first highway between two cities – Sydney (present day city centre) and Parramatta.[53] Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation.[48] Between 1788 and 1792, convicts and their jailers made up the majority of the population; in one generation, however, a population of emancipated convicts who could be granted land began to grow. These people pioneered Sydney's private sector economy and were later joined by soldiers whose military service had expired, and later still by free settlers who began arriving from Britain. Governor Phillip departed the colony for England on 11 December 1792, with the new settlement having survived near starvation and immense isolation for four years.[54] Conflicts The Castle Hill convict rebellion of 1804. Between 1790 and 1816, Sydney became one of the many sites of the Australian Frontier Wars, a series of conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the resisting Indigenous clans.[55] In 1790, when the British established farms along the Hawkesbury River, an Aboriginal leader Pemulwuy resisted the Europeans by waging a guerrilla-style warfare on the settlers in a series of wars known as the Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars which took place in western Sydney. He raided farms until Governor Macquarie dispatched troops from the British Army 46th Regiment in 1816 and ended the conflict by killing 14 Indigenous Australians in a raid on their campsite.[56][57] In 1804, Irish convicts led the Castle Hill Rebellion, a rebellion by convicts against colonial authority in the Castle Hill area of the British colony of New South Wales. The first and only major convict uprising in Australian history suppressed under martial law, the rebellion ended in a battle fought between convicts and the colonial forces of Australia at Rouse Hill.[58] The Rum Rebellion of 1808 was the only successful armed takeover of government in Australian history, where the Governor of New South Wales, William Bligh, was ousted by the New South Wales Corps under the command of Major George Johnston, who led the rebellion. Conflicts arose between the governors and the officers of the Rum Corps, many of which were land owners such as John Macarthur. Modern development 19th century Aerial illustration of Sydney, 1888 Early Sydney was moulded by the hardship suffered by early settlers. In the early years, drought and disease caused widespread problems, but the situation soon improved. The military colonial government was reliant on the army, the New South Wales Corps. Macquarie served as the last autocratic Governor of New South Wales, from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social and economic development of Sydney which saw it transition from a penal colony to a budding free society. He established public works, a bank, churches, and charitable institutions and sought good relations with the Aborigines. Victorian Sydney Over the course of the 19th-century Sydney established many of its major cultural institutions. Governor Lachlan Macquarie's vision for Sydney included the construction of grand public buildings and institutions fit for a colonial capital. Macquarie Street began to take shape as a ceremonial thoroughfare of grand buildings. The year 1840 was the final year of convict transportation to Sydney, which by this time had a population of 35,000.[43][48] Gold was discovered in the colony in 1851 and with it came thousands of people seeking their fortune.[43][59] Sydney's population reached 200,000 by 1871 and during this time the city entered a period of prosperity which was reflected in the construction of grand edifices. Temperance coffee palaces, hotels as well as other civic buildings such as libraries and museums were erected in the city.[60][61][62] Demand for infrastructure to support the growing population and subsequent economic activity led to massive improvements to the city's railway and port systems throughout the 1850s and 1860s.[63] After a period of rapid growth, further discoveries of gold in Victoria began drawing new residents away from Sydney towards Melbourne in the 1850s, which created a historically strong rivalry between Sydney and Melbourne.[64][65][66] Nevertheless, Sydney exceeded Melbourne's population in the early twentieth century and remains Australia's largest city.[6][67] Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies agreed to form the Commonwealth of Australia. Sydney's beaches had become popular seaside holiday resorts, but daylight sea bathing was considered indecent until the early 20th century.[49] 20th century–present A tramcar on George Street in 1920. Sydney once had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire. Under the reign of Queen Victoria federation of the six colonies occurred on 1 January 1901. Sydney, with a population of 481,000, then became the state capital of New South Wales. The Great Depression of the 1930s had a severe effect on Sydney's economy, as it did with most cities throughout the industrial world. For much of the 1930s up to one in three breadwinners were unemployed.[68] Construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge served to alleviate some of the effects of the economic downturn by employing 1,400 men between 1924 and 1932.[69] The population continued to boom despite the Depression, having reached 1 million in 1925.[63] The city had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire until it was dismantled in 1961. Sydney Harbour Bridge opening day 19 March 1932 When Britain declared war on Germany in 1939, Australia also entered. During the war, Sydney experienced a surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a wartime economy. Far from mass unemployment, there were now labour shortages and women becoming active in male roles. Sydney's harbour was attacked by the Japanese in May and June 1942 with a direct attack from Japanese submarines with some loss of life.[70] Households throughout the city had built air raid shelters and performed drills. Consequently, Sydney experienced population growth and increased cultural diversification throughout the post-war period. The people of Sydney warmly welcomed Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 when the reigning monarch stepped onto Australian soil for the first time to commence her Australian Royal Tour.[71] Having arrived on the Royal Yacht Britannia through Sydney Heads, Her Majesty came ashore at Farm Cove. There were 1.7 million people living in Sydney in 1950 and almost 3 million by 1975. The Australian government launched a large scale multicultural immigration program. Sydney hosted the 2000 Summer Olympics. New industries such as information technology, education, financial services and the arts have risen. Sydney's iconic Opera House was opened in 1973 by Her Majesty. A new skyline of concrete and steel skyscrapers swept away much of the old lowrise and often sandstone skyline of the city in the 1960s and 1970s, with Australia Square being the tallest building in Sydney from its completion in 1967 until 1976 and is also notable for being the first skyscraper in Australia.[72] This prolific growth of contemporary high-rise architecture was put in check by heritage laws in the 1990s onwards, which prevent the demolition of any structure deemed historically significant. Since the 1970s Sydney has undergone a rapid economic and social transformation. As a result, the city has become a cosmopolitan melting pot. To relieve congestion on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel opened in August 1992. The 2000 Summer Olympics were held in Sydney and became known as the "best Olympic Games ever" by the President of the International Olympic Committee.[73] Sydney has maintained extensive political, economic and cultural influence over Australia as well as international renown in recent decades. Following the Olympics, the city hosted the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the APEC Australia 2007 and Catholic World Youth Day 2008, led by Pope Benedict XVI. Geography Main article: Geography of Sydney Topography Sydney lies on a submergent coastline where the ocean level has risen to flood deep rias. Sydney is a coastal basin with the Tasman Sea to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north, and the Woronora Plateau to the south. The inner city measures 25 square kilometres (10 square miles), the Greater Sydney region covers 12,367 square kilometres (4,775 square miles), and the city's urban area is 1,687 square kilometres (651 square miles) in size.[74][75][76] Sydney spans two geographic regions. The Cumberland Plain lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat. The Hornsby Plateau is located to the north and is dissected by steep valleys. The flat areas of the south were the first to be developed as the city grew. It was not until the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge that the northern reaches of the coast became more heavily populated. Seventy beaches can be found along its coastline with Bondi Beach being one of the most famous. The Nepean River wraps around the western edge of the city and becomes the Hawkesbury River before reaching Broken Bay. Most of Sydney's water storages can be found on tributaries of the Nepean River. The Parramatta River is mostly industrial and drains a large area of Sydney's western suburbs into Port Jackson. The southern parts of the city are drained by the Georges River and the Cooks River into Botany Bay. According to calculations by the Senseable City Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 25.9% of Sydney is covered by trees, making it the third largest city in the world with the most trees after Singapore and Oslo, respectively, tying with Vancouver.[77] Geology Almost all of the exposed rocks around Sydney are Sydney sandstone. Sydney is made up of mostly Triassic rock with some recent igneous dykes and volcanic necks. The Sydney Basin was formed when the Earth's crust expanded, subsided, and filled with sediment in the early Triassic period.[78] The sand that was to become the sandstone of today was washed there by rivers from the south and northwest and laid down between 360 and 200 million years ago. The sandstone has shale lenses and fossil riverbeds.[78] The Sydney Basin bioregion includes coastal features of cliffs, beaches, and estuaries. Deep river valleys known as rias were carved during the Triassic period in the Hawkesbury sandstone of the coastal region where Sydney now lies. The rising sea level between 18,000 and 6,000 years ago flooded the rias to form estuaries and deep harbours.[78] Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is one such ria.[79] Sydney features two major soil types; sandy soils (which originate from the Hawkesbury sandstone) and clay (which are from shales and volcanic rocks), though some soils may be a mixture of the two.[80] Directly overlying the older Hawkesbury sandstone is the Wianamatta shale, a geological feature found in western Sydney that was deposited in connection with a large river delta during the Middle Triassic period which shifted over time from west to east. The Wianamatta shale generally comprises fine grained sedimentary rocks such as shales, mudstones, ironstones, siltstones and laminites, with less common sandstone units.[81] The Wianamatta Group is made up of the following units (listed in stratigraphic order): Bringelly Shale, Minchinbury Sandstone and Ashfield Shale.[82] Ecology Further information: Ecology of Sydney Typical grassy woodland in the Sydney area. The most prevalent plant communities in the Sydney region are open grassy woodlands[83] and some pockets of dry sclerophyll forests,[84] which consist of eucalyptus trees, casuarinas, melaleucas, corymbias and angophoras, with shrubs (typically wattles, callistemons, grevilleas and banksias), and a semi-continuous grass in the understory.[85] The plants in this community tend to have rough and spiky leaves, as they're grown in areas with low soil fertility. Sydney also features a few areas of wet sclerophyll forests which are found in the wetter, elevated areas in the north and the northeast. These forests are defined by straight, tall tree canopies with a moist understory of soft-leaved shrubs, tree ferns and herbs.[86] Sydney is home to dozens of bird species,[87] which commonly include the Australian raven, Australian magpie, crested pigeon, noisy miner and the pied currawong, among others. Introduced bird species ubiquitously found in Sydney are the common myna, common starling, house sparrow and the spotted dove.[88] Reptile species are also numerous and predominantly include skinks.[89][90] Sydney has a few mammal and spider species, such as the grey-headed flying fox and the Sydney funnel-web, respectively,[91][92] and has a huge diversity of marine species inhabiting its harbour and many beaches.[93] Climate Main article: Climate of Sydney Sydney, New South Wales Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D 91 2820 132 2720 118 2618 114 2415 101 2112 142 1810 80 189 75 1910 63 2212 68 2315 91 2417 73 2618 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Imperial conversion Autumn foliage in May Under the classic system Sydney has a temperate climate but under the Köppen–Geiger classification, Sydney has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).[94] The Australian Bureau of Statistics describes the summers as "warm [and] sometimes hot", and the winters as "cool", with uniform rainfall throughout the year.[95] At Sydney's primary weather station at Observatory Hill, extreme temperatures have ranged from 45.8 °C (114.4 °F) on 18 January 2013 to 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) on 22 June 1932.[96][97][98] An average of 14.9 days a year have temperatures at or above 30 °C (86 °F) in the central business district (CBD).[99] In contrast, the metropolitan area averages between 35 and 65 days, depending on the suburb.[100] The highest minimum temperature recorded at Observatory Hill is 27.6 °C (82 °F), on 6 February 2011, while the lowest maximum temperature is 7.7 °C (46 °F), recorded on 19 July 1868.[99] The hottest day in the Sydney metropolitan area occurred in Penrith on 4 January 2020, where a high of 48.9 °C (120.0 °F) was recorded.[101] The average annual temperature of the sea ranges from 18.5 °C (65.3 °F) in September to 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) in February.[102] Sydney has an average of 7.2 hours of sunshine per day[103] and 109.5 clear days annually.[104] The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs.[99] Sydney experiences an urban heat island effect.[105] This makes certain parts of the city more vulnerable to extreme heat, including coastal suburbs.[105][106] In late spring and summer, temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are not uncommon,[107] though hot, dry conditions are usually ended by a southerly buster,[108] a powerful southerly that brings gale winds and a rapid fall in temperature.[109] Since Sydney borders the Great Dividing Range, it can occasionally experience dry, westerly Föhn-like winds usually between winter and spring, as it lies on the leeward side of the ranges, thereby elevating fire danger in the region.[110][111] Due to the inland location, frost is recorded early in the morning in Western Sydney a few times in winter. Autumn and spring are the transitional seasons, with spring showing a larger temperature variation than autumn.[112] The Bureau of Meteorology reported that 2002 to 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859.[113] The summer of 2007–08, however, proved to be the coolest since 1996–97 and is the only summer this century to be at or below average in temperatures.[114] In 2009, dry conditions brought a severe dust storm towards eastern Australia.[115][116] The El Niño–Southern Oscillation, the Indian Ocean Dipole and the Southern Annular Mode[117][118] play an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, which tend to occur during the spring and summer.[119][120] A summer thunderstorm over the city taken from Potts Point, 1991. The rainfall has a moderate to low variability and it is spread through the months, though it has been erratic in recent times.[121][122] Even in its months of highest rainfall, Sydney has relatively few rainy days, with an average mean of 7 to 8 rainy days per month on the 1 mm (0.04 in) threshold. Precipitation is usually higher in late summer through to early winter when the subtropical ridge is to the south of Australia, permitting easterly winds to dominate, and lower in late winter to early spring when the subtropical ridge is to the north, as it brings dry winds from the continent's interior towards the city, since it rotates counter-clockwise.[117][123][99][124] From 1990 to 1999, Sydney received around 20 thunderstorms per year.[125] In late autumn and winter, east coast lows may bring large amounts of rainfall, especially in the CBD.[126] In spring and summer, black nor'easters are usually the cause of heavy rain events, though other forms of low-pressure areas may also bring heavy deluge and afternoon thunderstorms.[127] Depending on the wind direction, summer weather may be humid or dry, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher average humidity and dewpoints than late spring/early summer. In summer, most rain falls from thunderstorms and in winter from cold fronts.[128] Snowfall was last reported in the Sydney City area in 1836, while a fall of graupel, or soft hail, was mistaken by many for snow, in July 2008.[129] The city is rarely affected by cyclones, although remnants of ex-cyclones do affect the city. The city is also prone to severe storms. One such storm was the 1999 hailstorm, which produced massive hailstones up to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter.[130] vte Climate data for Sydney (Observatory Hill) 1991–2020 averages, 1861–present extremes Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 45.8 (114.4) 42.1 (107.8) 39.8 (103.6) 35.4 (95.7) 30.0 (86.0) 26.9 (80.4) 26.5 (79.7) 31.3 (88.3) 34.6 (94.3) 38.2 (100.8) 41.8 (107.2) 42.2 (108.0) 45.8 (114.4) Average high °C (°F) 27.0 (80.6) 26.8 (80.2) 25.7 (78.3) 23.6 (74.5) 20.9 (69.6) 18.2 (64.8) 17.9 (64.2) 19.3 (66.7) 21.6 (70.9) 23.2 (73.8) 24.2 (75.6) 25.7 (78.3) 22.8 (73.0) Average low °C (°F) 20.0 (68.0) 19.9 (67.8) 18.4 (65.1) 15.3 (59.5) 12.3 (54.1) 10.0 (50.0) 8.9 (48.0) 9.7 (49.5) 12.3 (54.1) 14.6 (58.3) 16.6 (61.9) 18.4 (65.1) 14.7 (58.5) Record low °C (°F) 10.6 (51.1) 9.6 (49.3) 9.3 (48.7) 7.0 (44.6) 4.4 (39.9) 2.1 (35.8) 2.2 (36.0) 2.7 (36.9) 4.9 (40.8) 5.7 (42.3) 7.7 (45.9) 9.1 (48.4) 2.1 (35.8) Average rainfall mm (inches) 91.1 (3.59) 131.5 (5.18) 117.5 (4.63) 114.1 (4.49) 100.8 (3.97) 142.0 (5.59) 80.3 (3.16) 75.1 (2.96) 63.4 (2.50) 67.7 (2.67) 90.6 (3.57) 73.0 (2.87) 1,147.1 (45.16) Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 8.2 9.0 10.1 7.9 7.9 9.3 7.2 5.6 5.8 7.6 8.7 7.9 95.2 Average afternoon relative humidity (%) 60 62 59 58 58 56 52 47 49 53 57 58 56 Average dew point °C (°F) 16.5 (61.7) 17.2 (63.0) 15.4 (59.7) 12.7 (54.9) 10.3 (50.5) 7.8 (46.0) 6.1 (43.0) 5.4 (41.7) 7.8 (46.0) 10.2 (50.4) 12.6 (54.7) 14.6 (58.3) 11.4 (52.5) Mean monthly sunshine hours 232.5 205.9 210.8 213.0 204.6 171.0 207.7 248.0 243.0 244.9 222.0 235.6 2,639 Percent possible sunshine 53 54 56 61 59 60 65 72 66 61 55 55 60 Average ultraviolet index 12 11 9 6 3 2 3 4 5 8 10 12 7 Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology[131][132] Source 2: Bureau of Meteorology, Sydney Airport (sunshine hours);[133] Weather Atlas (average UV index)[134] Regions See also: Regions of Sydney Satellite photo of the Sydney area at night. Wollongong can be seen at bottom left, while Gosford and the Central Coast are visible at the far right. The regions of Sydney include the CBD or City of Sydney (colloquially referred to as 'the City') and Inner West, the Eastern Suburbs, Southern Sydney, Greater Western Sydney (including the South-west, Hills District and the Macarthur Region), and the Northern Suburbs (including the North Shore and Northern Beaches). The Greater Sydney Commission divides Sydney into five districts based on the 33 LGAs in the metropolitan area; the Western City, the Central City, the Eastern City, the North District, and the South District.[135] The Australian Bureau of Statistics includes City of Central Coast (the former Gosford City and Wyong Shire) as part of Greater Sydney for population counts.[136] This adds another 330,000 people to the metropolitan area covered by Greater Sydney Commission.[137] Recent statements by the state government (on the topic of the COVID-19 pandemic) have included the Blue Mountains, the Central Coast, and Wollongong as parts of Greater Sydney.[138] Inner suburbs Oxford Street in Darlinghurst The CBD extends about 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) south from Sydney Cove. It is bordered by Farm Cove within the Royal Botanic Garden to the east and Darling Harbour to the west. Suburbs surrounding the CBD include Woolloomooloo and Potts Point to the east, Surry Hills and Darlinghurst to the south, Pyrmont and Ultimo to the west, and Millers Point and The Rocks to the north. Most of these suburbs measure less than 1 square kilometre (0.4 square miles) in area. The Sydney CBD is characterised by considerably narrow streets and thoroughfares, created in its convict beginnings in the 18th century.[139] Anzac Bridge, spanning Johnstons Bay, links western suburbs to the CBD. Several localities, distinct from suburbs, exist throughout Sydney's inner reaches. Central and Circular Quay are transport hubs with ferry, rail, and bus interchanges. Chinatown, Darling Harbour, and Kings Cross are important locations for culture, tourism, and recreation. The Strand Arcade, which is located between Pitt Street Mall and George Street, is a historical Victorian-style shopping arcade. Opened on 1 April 1892, its shop fronts are an exact replica of the original internal shopping facades.[140] Westfield Sydney, located beneath the Sydney Tower, is the largest shopping centre by area in Sydney.[141] A typical inner-city street. Pictured: Paddington There is a long trend of gentrification amongst Sydney's inner suburbs. Pyrmont located on the harbour was redeveloped from a centre of shipping and international trade to an area of high density housing, tourist accommodation, and gambling.[142] Originally located well outside of the city, Darlinghurst is the location of the historic, former Darlinghurst Gaol, manufacturing, and mixed housing. It had a period when it was known as an area of prostitution. The terrace style housing has largely been retained and Darlinghurst has undergone significant gentrification since the 1980s.[143][144][145] Green Square is a former industrial area of Waterloo which is undergoing urban renewal worth $8 billion. On the city harbour edge, the historic suburb and wharves of Millers Point are being built up as the new area of Barangaroo. The enforced rehousing of local residents due to the Millers Point/Barangaroo development has caused significant controversy despite the $6 billion worth of economic activity it is expected to generate.[146][147] The suburb of Paddington is a well known suburb for its streets of restored terrace houses, Victoria Barracks, and shopping including the weekly Oxford Street markets.[148] Inner West King Street in Newtown is one of the most complete Victorian and Edwardian era commercial precincts in Australia. The Inner West generally includes the Inner West Council, Municipality of Burwood, Municipality of Strathfield, and City of Canada Bay. These span up to about 11 km west of the CBD. Suburbs in the Inner West have historically housed working class industrial workers, but have undergone gentrification over the 20th century. The region now mainly features medium- and high-density housing. Major features in the area include the University of Sydney and the Parramatta River, as well as a large cosmopolitan community and the nightlife hub on King Street in Newtown. The Anzac Bridge spans Johnstons Bay and connects Rozelle to Pyrmont and the City, forming part of the Western Distributor. The area is serviced by the T1, T2, and T3 railway lines, including the Main Suburban Line; which is the first to be constructed in New South Wales. Strathfield Railway Station is a secondary railway hub within Sydney, and major station on the Suburban and Northern lines. It was constructed in 1876,[149] and will be a future terminus of Parramatta Light Rail.[150] The area is also serviced by numerous bus routes and cycleways.[151] Other shopping centres in the area include Westfield Burwood and DFO in Homebush. Eastern suburbs Sydney skyline as viewed from Tasman Sea, overlooking the clifftop suburb of Vaucluse. The Eastern Suburbs encompass the Municipality of Woollahra, the City of Randwick, the Waverley Municipal Council, and parts of the Bayside Council. The Greater Sydney Commission envisions a resident population of 1,338,250 people by 2036 in its Eastern City District (including the City and Inner West).[152] They include some of the most affluent and advantaged areas in the country, with some streets being amongst the most expensive in the world. Wolseley Road, in Point Piper, has a top price of $20,900 per square metre, making it the ninth-most expensive street in the world.[153] More than 75% of neighbourhoods in the Electoral District of Wentworth fall under the top decile of SEIFA advantage, making it the least disadvantaged area in the country.[154] Major landmarks include Bondi Beach, a major tourist site; which was added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2008;[155] and Bondi Junction, featuring a Westfield shopping centre and an estimated office work force of 6,400 by 2035,[156] as well as a train station on the T4 Eastern Suburbs Line. The suburb of Randwick contains the Randwick Racecourse, the Royal Hospital for Women, the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney Children's Hospital, and the UNSW Kensington Campus. Randwick's 'Collaboration Area' has a baseline estimate of 32,000 jobs by 2036, according to the Greater Sydney Commission.[157] Construction of the CBD and South East Light Rail was completed in April 2020.[158] Main construction was due to be completed in 2018 but was delayed until 2020.[159] The project aims to provide reliable and high-capacity tram services to residents in the City and South-East. Major shopping centres in the area include Westfield Bondi Junction and Westfield Eastgardens. Southern Sydney Kurnell, La Perouse, Cronulla, along with various other suburbs face Botany Bay. Southern Sydney includes the suburbs in the local government areas of former Rockdale, Georges River Council (collectively known as the St George area), and broadly it also includes the suburbs in the local government area of Sutherland, south of the Georges River (colloquially known as 'The Shire'). The Kurnell peninsula, near Botany Bay, is the site of the first landfall on the eastern coastline made by Lt. (later Captain) James Cook in 1770. La Perouse, a historic suburb named after the French navigator Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse (1741–88), is notable for its old military outpost at Bare Island and the Botany Bay National Park. The suburb of Cronulla in southern Sydney is close to Royal National Park, Australia's oldest national park. Hurstville, a large suburb with a multitude of commercial buildings and high-rise residential buildings dominating the skyline, has become a CBD for the southern suburbs.[160] Northern Sydney Further information: Northern Sydney Chatswood is a major commercial district. 'Northern Sydney' may also include the suburbs in the Upper North Shore, Lower North Shore and the Northern Beaches. The Northern Suburbs include several landmarks – M

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  29. led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the settlement after Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney.[12] Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, and over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world.[3] At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney.[13] In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home.[14] Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, and the city has the third-largest foreign-born population of any city in the world after London and New York City.[15][16] Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world,[17] Sydney frequently ranks in the top ten most liveable cities in the world.[18][19][20] It is classified as an Alpha Global City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.[21][22] Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity,[23] Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing and tourism.[24][25] There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs.[26][27] Established in 1850, the University of Sydney was Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities.[28] Sydney is also home to the oldest library in Australia, the State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826.[29] Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics. The city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world,[30] with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks.[31] Boasting over 1,000,000 ha (2,500,000 acres) of nature reserves and parks,[32] its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.[33] Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are also well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports.[34] Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network.[35] Contents 1 History 1.1 First inhabitants 1.2 Establishment of the colony 1.2.1 Conflicts 1.3 Modern development 1.3.1 19th century 1.3.2 20th century–present 2 Geography 2.1 Topography 2.2 Geology 2.3 Ecology 2.4 Climate 3 Regions 3.1 Inner suburbs 3.1.1 Inner West 3.2 Eastern suburbs 3.3 Southern Sydney 3.4 Northern Sydney 3.5 Hills district 3.6 Western suburbs 4 Urban structure 4.1 Architecture 4.2 Housing 4.3 Parks and open spaces 5 Economy 5.1 Corporate citizens 5.2 Domestic economics 5.3 Financial services 5.4 Manufacturing 5.5 Tourism and international education 6 Demographics 6.1 Ancestry and immigration 6.2 Language 6.3 Religion 6.4 Crime 7 Culture 7.1 Science, art, and history 7.2 Entertainment 7.3 Media 8 Sport and outdoor activities 8.1 Notable sporting venues 9 Government 9.1 Historical governance 9.2 Government in the present 10 Infrastructure 10.1 Education 10.2 Health 10.3 Transport 10.3.1 Roads 10.3.2 Buses 10.3.3 Trams and light rail 10.3.4 Trains 10.3.5 Ferries 10.3.6 Airports 10.4 Environmental issues and pollution reduction 10.5 Utilities 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links History Main articles: History of Sydney and Timeline of Sydney First inhabitants Charcoal drawing of kangaroos in Heathcote National Park. The first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians who had migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. While radiocarbon dating has shown evidence of human activity in the Sydney area from around 30,000 years ago,[36] Aboriginal stone tools found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments indicate there was human settlement in the region from as far back as 45,000 to 50,000 years BP.[37] The first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.[38][39][40] He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors.[38] Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement. He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British, there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.[41] The earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place".[42] Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan.[41] The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, and cooking fish.[38] Establishment of the colony The Founding of Australia, 26 January 1788, by Captain Arthur Phillip R.N., Sydney Cove. Painting by Algernon Talmage. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies. That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years earlier.[12] Captain Phillip led the First Fleet of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of freshwater. He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788.[43][44] This was to be the location for the new colony. Phillip described Port Jackson as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world".[45] The colony was at first to be titled "New Albion" (after Albion, another name for Great Britain), but Phillip decided on "Sydney".The official proclamation and naming of the colony happened on 7 February 1788. Lieutenant William Dawes produced a town plan in 1790 but it was ignored by the colony's leaders. Sydney's layout today reflects this lack of planning.[46] Between 1788 and 1792, 3,546 male and 766 female convicts were landed at Sydney—many "professional criminals" with few of the skills required for the establishment of a colony. The food situation reached crisis point in 1790. Early efforts at agriculture were fraught and supplies from overseas were scarce. From 1791 on, however, the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of trade lessened the feeling of isolation and improved supplies.[47] The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity. Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging.[48] Phillip sent exploratory missions in search of better soils and fixed on the Parramatta region as a promising area for expansion and moved many of the convicts from late 1788 to establish a small township, which became the main centre of the colony's economic life, leaving Sydney Cove only as an important port and focus of social life. Poor equipment and unfamiliar soils and climate continued to hamper the expansion of farming from Farm Cove to Parramatta and Toongabbie, but a building programme, assisted by convict labour, advanced steadily.[49] Thomas Watling's View of Sydney Cove, circa 1794-1796 Officers and convicts alike faced starvation as supplies ran low and little could be cultivated from the land.[50] The region's indigenous population was also suffering. It is estimated that half of the native people in Sydney died during the smallpox epidemic of 1789.[41][51] Enlightened for his age, Phillip's personal intent was to establish harmonious relations with local Aboriginal people and try to reform as well as discipline the convicts of the colony. Phillip and several of his officers – most notably Watkin Tench – left behind journals and accounts which tell of immense hardships during the first years of settlement.[52] Part of Macquarie's effort to transform the colony was his authorisation for convicts to re-enter society as free citizens.[52] Roads, bridges, wharves, and public buildings were constructed using convict labour and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, and well-established thoroughfares. Parramatta Road was opened in 1811, which is one of Sydney's oldest roads and Australia's first highway between two cities – Sydney (present day city centre) and Parramatta.[53] Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation.[48] Between 1788 and 1792, convicts and their jailers made up the majority of the population; in one generation, however, a population of emancipated convicts who could be granted land began to grow. These people pioneered Sydney's private sector economy and were later joined by soldiers whose military service had expired, and later still by free settlers who began arriving from Britain. Governor Phillip departed the colony for England on 11 December 1792, with the new settlement having survived near starvation and immense isolation for four years.[54] Conflicts The Castle Hill convict rebellion of 1804. Between 1790 and 1816, Sydney became one of the many sites of the Australian Frontier Wars, a series of conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the resisting Indigenous clans.[55] In 1790, when the British established farms along the Hawkesbury River, an Aboriginal leader Pemulwuy resisted the Europeans by waging a guerrilla-style warfare on the settlers in a series of wars known as the Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars which took place in western Sydney. He raided farms until Governor Macquarie dispatched troops from the British Army 46th Regiment in 1816 and ended the conflict by killing 14 Indigenous Australians in a raid on their campsite.[56][57] In 1804, Irish convicts led the Castle Hill Rebellion, a rebellion by convicts against colonial authority in the Castle Hill area of the British colony of New South Wales. The first and only major convict uprising in Australian history suppressed under martial law, the rebellion ended in a battle fought between convicts and the colonial forces of Australia at Rouse Hill.[58] The Rum Rebellion of 1808 was the only successful armed takeover of government in Australian history, where the Governor of New South Wales, William Bligh, was ousted by the New South Wales Corps under the command of Major George Johnston, who led the rebellion. Conflicts arose between the governors and the officers of the Rum Corps, many of which were land owners such as John Macarthur. Modern development 19th century Aerial illustration of Sydney, 1888 Early Sydney was moulded by the hardship suffered by early settlers. In the early years, drought and disease caused widespread problems, but the situation soon improved. The military colonial government was reliant on the army, the New South Wales Corps. Macquarie served as the last autocratic Governor of New South Wales, from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social and economic development of Sydney which saw it transition from a penal colony to a budding free society. He established public works, a bank, churches, and charitable institutions and sought good relations with the Aborigines. Victorian Sydney Over the course of the 19th-century Sydney established many of its major cultural institutions. Governor Lachlan Macquarie's vision for Sydney included the construction of grand public buildings and institutions fit for a colonial capital. Macquarie Street began to take shape as a ceremonial thoroughfare of grand buildings. The year 1840 was the final year of convict transportation to Sydney, which by this time had a population of 35,000.[43][48] Gold was discovered in the colony in 1851 and with it came thousands of people seeking their fortune.[43][59] Sydney's population reached 200,000 by 1871 and during this time the city entered a period of prosperity which was reflected in the construction of grand edifices. Temperance coffee palaces, hotels as well as other civic buildings such as libraries and museums were erected in the city.[60][61][62] Demand for infrastructure to support the growing population and subsequent economic activity led to massive improvements to the city's railway and port systems throughout the 1850s and 1860s.[63] After a period of rapid growth, further discoveries of gold in Victoria began drawing new residents away from Sydney towards Melbourne in the 1850s, which created a historically strong rivalry between Sydney and Melbourne.[64][65][66] Nevertheless, Sydney exceeded Melbourne's population in the early twentieth century and remains Australia's largest city.[6][67] Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies agreed to form the Commonwealth of Australia. Sydney's beaches had become popular seaside holiday resorts, but daylight sea bathing was considered indecent until the early 20th century.[49] 20th century–present A tramcar on George Street in 1920. Sydney once had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire. Under the reign of Queen Victoria federation of the six colonies occurred on 1 January 1901. Sydney, with a population of 481,000, then became the state capital of New South Wales. The Great Depression of the 1930s had a severe effect on Sydney's economy, as it did with most cities throughout the industrial world. For much of the 1930s up to one in three breadwinners were unemployed.[68] Construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge served to alleviate some of the effects of the economic downturn by employing 1,400 men between 1924 and 1932.[69] The population continued to boom despite the Depression, having reached 1 million in 1925.[63] The city had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire until it was dismantled in 1961. Sydney Harbour Bridge opening day 19 March 1932 When Britain declared war on Germany in 1939, Australia also entered. During the war, Sydney experienced a surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a wartime economy. Far from mass unemployment, there were now labour shortages and women becoming active in male roles. Sydney's harbour was attacked by the Japanese in May and June 1942 with a direct attack from Japanese submarines with some loss of life.[70] Households throughout the city had built air raid shelters and performed drills. Consequently, Sydney experienced population growth and increased cultural diversification throughout the post-war period. The people of Sydney warmly welcomed Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 when the reigning monarch stepped onto Australian soil for the first time to commence her Australian Royal Tour.[71] Having arrived on the Royal Yacht Britannia through Sydney Heads, Her Majesty came ashore at Farm Cove. There were 1.7 million people living in Sydney in 1950 and almost 3 million by 1975. The Australian government launched a large scale multicultural immigration program. Sydney hosted the 2000 Summer Olympics. New industries such as information technology, education, financial services and the arts have risen. Sydney's iconic Opera House was opened in 1973 by Her Majesty. A new skyline of concrete and steel skyscrapers swept away much of the old lowrise and often sandstone skyline of the city in the 1960s and 1970s, with Australia Square being the tallest building in Sydney from its completion in 1967 until 1976 and is also notable for being the first skyscraper in Australia.[72] This prolific growth of contemporary high-rise architecture was put in check by heritage laws in the 1990s onwards, which prevent the demolition of any structure deemed historically significant. Since the 1970s Sydney has undergone a rapid economic and social transformation. As a result, the city has become a cosmopolitan melting pot. To relieve congestion on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel opened in August 1992. The 2000 Summer Olympics were held in Sydney and became known as the "best Olympic Games ever" by the President of the International Olympic Committee.[73] Sydney has maintained extensive political, economic and cultural influence over Australia as well as international renown in recent decades. Following the Olympics, the city hosted the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the APEC Australia 2007 and Catholic World Youth Day 2008, led by Pope Benedict XVI. Geography Main article: Geography of Sydney Topography Sydney lies on a submergent coastline where the ocean level has risen to flood deep rias. Sydney is a coastal basin with the Tasman Sea to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north, and the Woronora Plateau to the south. The inner city measures 25 square kilometres (10 square miles), the Greater Sydney region covers 12,367 square kilometres (4,775 square miles), and the city's urban area is 1,687 square kilometres (651 square miles) in size.[74][75][76] Sydney spans two geographic regions. The Cumberland Plain lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat. The Hornsby Plateau is located to the north and is dissected by steep valleys. The flat areas of the south were the first to be developed as the city grew. It was not until the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge that the northern reaches of the coast became more heavily populated. Seventy beaches can be found along its coastline with Bondi Beach being one of the most famous. The Nepean River wraps around the western edge of the city and becomes the Hawkesbury River before reaching Broken Bay. Most of Sydney's water storages can be found on tributaries of the Nepean River. The Parramatta River is mostly industrial and drains a large area of Sydney's western suburbs into Port Jackson. The southern parts of the city are drained by the Georges River and the Cooks River into Botany Bay. According to calculations by the Senseable City Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 25.9% of Sydney is covered by trees, making it the third largest city in the world with the most trees after Singapore and Oslo, respectively, tying with Vancouver.[77] Geology Almost all of the exposed rocks around Sydney are Sydney sandstone. Sydney is made up of mostly Triassic rock with some recent igneous dykes and volcanic necks. The Sydney Basin was formed when the Earth's crust expanded, subsided, and filled with sediment in the early Triassic period.[78] The sand that was to become the sandstone of today was washed there by rivers from the south and northwest and laid down between 360 and 200 million years ago. The sandstone has shale lenses and fossil riverbeds.[78] The Sydney Basin bioregion includes coastal features of cliffs, beaches, and estuaries. Deep river valleys known as rias were carved during the Triassic period in the Hawkesbury sandstone of the coastal region where Sydney now lies. The rising sea level between 18,000 and 6,000 years ago flooded the rias to form estuaries and deep harbours.[78] Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is one such ria.[79] Sydney features two major soil types; sandy soils (which originate from the Hawkesbury sandstone) and clay (which are from shales and volcanic rocks), though some soils may be a mixture of the two.[80] Directly overlying the older Hawkesbury sandstone is the Wianamatta shale, a geological feature found in western Sydney that was deposited in connection with a large river delta during the Middle Triassic period which shifted over time from west to east. The Wianamatta shale generally comprises fine grained sedimentary rocks such as shales, mudstones, ironstones, siltstones and laminites, with less common sandstone units.[81] The Wianamatta Group is made up of the following units (listed in stratigraphic order): Bringelly Shale, Minchinbury Sandstone and Ashfield Shale.[82] Ecology Further information: Ecology of Sydney Typical grassy woodland in the Sydney area. The most prevalent plant communities in the Sydney region are open grassy woodlands[83] and some pockets of dry sclerophyll forests,[84] which consist of eucalyptus trees, casuarinas, melaleucas, corymbias and angophoras, with shrubs (typically wattles, callistemons, grevilleas and banksias), and a semi-continuous grass in the understory.[85] The plants in this community tend to have rough and spiky leaves, as they're grown in areas with low soil fertility. Sydney also features a few areas of wet sclerophyll forests which are found in the wetter, elevated areas in the north and the northeast. These forests are defined by straight, tall tree canopies with a moist understory of soft-leaved shrubs, tree ferns and herbs.[86] Sydney is home to dozens of bird species,[87] which commonly include the Australian raven, Australian magpie, crested pigeon, noisy miner and the pied currawong, among others. Introduced bird species ubiquitously found in Sydney are the common myna, common starling, house sparrow and the spotted dove.[88] Reptile species are also numerous and predominantly include skinks.[89][90] Sydney has a few mammal and spider species, such as the grey-headed flying fox and the Sydney funnel-web, respectively,[91][92] and has a huge diversity of marine species inhabiting its harbour and many beaches.[93] Climate Main article: Climate of Sydney Sydney, New South Wales Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D 91 2820 132 2720 118 2618 114 2415 101 2112 142 1810 80 189 75 1910 63 2212 68 2315 91 2417 73 2618 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Imperial conversion Autumn foliage in May Under the classic system Sydney has a temperate climate but under the Köppen–Geiger classification, Sydney has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).[94] The Australian Bureau of Statistics describes the summers as "warm [and] sometimes hot", and the winters as "cool", with uniform rainfall throughout the year.[95] At Sydney's primary weather station at Observatory Hill, extreme temperatures have ranged from 45.8 °C (114.4 °F) on 18 January 2013 to 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) on 22 June 1932.[96][97][98] An average of 14.9 days a year have temperatures at or above 30 °C (86 °F) in the central business district (CBD).[99] In contrast, the metropolitan area averages between 35 and 65 days, depending on the suburb.[100] The highest minimum temperature recorded at Observatory Hill is 27.6 °C (82 °F), on 6 February 2011, while the lowest maximum temperature is 7.7 °C (46 °F), recorded on 19 July 1868.[99] The hottest day in the Sydney metropolitan area occurred in Penrith on 4 January 2020, where a high of 48.9 °C (120.0 °F) was recorded.[101] The average annual temperature of the sea ranges from 18.5 °C (65.3 °F) in September to 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) in February.[102] Sydney has an average of 7.2 hours of sunshine per day[103] and 109.5 clear days annually.[104] The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs.[99] Sydney experiences an urban heat island effect.[105] This makes certain parts of the city more vulnerable to extreme heat, including coastal suburbs.[105][106] In late spring and summer, temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are not uncommon,[107] though hot, dry conditions are usually ended by a southerly buster,[108] a powerful southerly that brings gale winds and a rapid fall in temperature.[109] Since Sydney borders the Great Dividing Range, it can occasionally experience dry, westerly Föhn-like winds usually between winter and spring, as it lies on the leeward side of the ranges, thereby elevating fire danger in the region.[110][111] Due to the inland location, frost is recorded early in the morning in Western Sydney a few times in winter. Autumn and spring are the transitional seasons, with spring showing a larger temperature variation than autumn.[112] The Bureau of Meteorology reported that 2002 to 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859.[113] The summer of 2007–08, however, proved to be the coolest since 1996–97 and is the only summer this century to be at or below average in temperatures.[114] In 2009, dry conditions brought a severe dust storm towards eastern Australia.[115][116] The El Niño–Southern Oscillation, the Indian Ocean Dipole and the Southern Annular Mode[117][118] play an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, which tend to occur during the spring and summer.[119][120] A summer thunderstorm over the city taken from Potts Point, 1991. The rainfall has a moderate to low variability and it is spread through the months, though it has been erratic in recent times.[121][122] Even in its months of highest rainfall, Sydney has relatively few rainy days, with an average mean of 7 to 8 rainy days per month on the 1 mm (0.04 in) threshold. Precipitation is usually higher in late summer through to early winter when the subtropical ridge is to the south of Australia, permitting easterly winds to dominate, and lower in late winter to early spring when the subtropical ridge is to the north, as it brings dry winds from the continent's interior towards the city, since it rotates counter-clockwise.[117][123][99][124] From 1990 to 1999, Sydney received around 20 thunderstorms per year.[125] In late autumn and winter, east coast lows may bring large amounts of rainfall, especially in the CBD.[126] In spring and summer, black nor'easters are usually the cause of heavy rain events, though other forms of low-pressure areas may also bring heavy deluge and afternoon thunderstorms.[127] Depending on the wind direction, summer weather may be humid or dry, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher average humidity and dewpoints than late spring/early summer. In summer, most rain falls from thunderstorms and in winter from cold fronts.[128] Snowfall was last reported in the Sydney City area in 1836, while a fall of graupel, or soft hail, was mistaken by many for snow, in July 2008.[129] The city is rarely affected by cyclones, although remnants of ex-cyclones do affect the city. The city is also prone to severe storms. One such storm was the 1999 hailstorm, which produced massive hailstones up to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter.[130] vte Climate data for Sydney (Observatory Hill) 1991–2020 averages, 1861–present extremes Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 45.8 (114.4) 42.1 (107.8) 39.8 (103.6) 35.4 (95.7) 30.0 (86.0) 26.9 (80.4) 26.5 (79.7) 31.3 (88.3) 34.6 (94.3) 38.2 (100.8) 41.8 (107.2) 42.2 (108.0) 45.8 (114.4) Average high °C (°F) 27.0 (80.6) 26.8 (80.2) 25.7 (78.3) 23.6 (74.5) 20.9 (69.6) 18.2 (64.8) 17.9 (64.2) 19.3 (66.7) 21.6 (70.9) 23.2 (73.8) 24.2 (75.6) 25.7 (78.3) 22.8 (73.0) Average low °C (°F) 20.0 (68.0) 19.9 (67.8) 18.4 (65.1) 15.3 (59.5) 12.3 (54.1) 10.0 (50.0) 8.9 (48.0) 9.7 (49.5) 12.3 (54.1) 14.6 (58.3) 16.6 (61.9) 18.4 (65.1) 14.7 (58.5) Record low °C (°F) 10.6 (51.1) 9.6 (49.3) 9.3 (48.7) 7.0 (44.6) 4.4 (39.9) 2.1 (35.8) 2.2 (36.0) 2.7 (36.9) 4.9 (40.8) 5.7 (42.3) 7.7 (45.9) 9.1 (48.4) 2.1 (35.8) Average rainfall mm (inches) 91.1 (3.59) 131.5 (5.18) 117.5 (4.63) 114.1 (4.49) 100.8 (3.97) 142.0 (5.59) 80.3 (3.16) 75.1 (2.96) 63.4 (2.50) 67.7 (2.67) 90.6 (3.57) 73.0 (2.87) 1,147.1 (45.16) Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 8.2 9.0 10.1 7.9 7.9 9.3 7.2 5.6 5.8 7.6 8.7 7.9 95.2 Average afternoon relative humidity (%) 60 62 59 58 58 56 52 47 49 53 57 58 56 Average dew point °C (°F) 16.5 (61.7) 17.2 (63.0) 15.4 (59.7) 12.7 (54.9) 10.3 (50.5) 7.8 (46.0) 6.1 (43.0) 5.4 (41.7) 7.8 (46.0) 10.2 (50.4) 12.6 (54.7) 14.6 (58.3) 11.4 (52.5) Mean monthly sunshine hours 232.5 205.9 210.8 213.0 204.6 171.0 207.7 248.0 243.0 244.9 222.0 235.6 2,639 Percent possible sunshine 53 54 56 61 59 60 65 72 66 61 55 55 60 Average ultraviolet index 12 11 9 6 3 2 3 4 5 8 10 12 7 Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology[131][132] Source 2: Bureau of Meteorology, Sydney Airport (sunshine hours);[133] Weather Atlas (average UV index)[134] Regions See also: Regions of Sydney Satellite photo of the Sydney area at night. Wollongong can be seen at bottom left, while Gosford and the Central Coast are visible at the far right. The regions of Sydney include the CBD or City of Sydney (colloquially referred to as 'the City') and Inner West, the Eastern Suburbs, Southern Sydney, Greater Western Sydney (including the South-west, Hills District and the Macarthur Region), and the Northern Suburbs (including the North Shore and Northern Beaches). The Greater Sydney Commission divides Sydney into five districts based on the 33 LGAs in the metropolitan area; the Western City, the Central City, the Eastern City, the North District, and the South District.[135] The Australian Bureau of Statistics includes City of Central Coast (the former Gosford City and Wyong Shire) as part of Greater Sydney for population counts.[136] This adds another 330,000 people to the metropolitan area covered by Greater Sydney Commission.[137] Recent statements by the state government (on the topic of the COVID-19 pandemic) have included the Blue Mountains, the Central Coast, and Wollongong as parts of Greater Sydney.[138] Inner suburbs Oxford Street in Darlinghurst The CBD extends about 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) south from Sydney Cove. It is bordered by Farm Cove within the Royal Botanic Garden to the east and Darling Harbour to the west. Suburbs surrounding the CBD include Woolloomooloo and Potts Point to the east, Surry Hills and Darlinghurst to the south, Pyrmont and Ultimo to the west, and Millers Point and The Rocks to the north. Most of these suburbs measure less than 1 square kilometre (0.4 square miles) in area. The Sydney CBD is characterised by considerably narrow streets and thoroughfares, created in its convict beginnings in the 18th century.[139] Anzac Bridge, spanning Johnstons Bay, links western suburbs to the CBD. Several localities, distinct from suburbs, exist throughout Sydney's inner reaches. Central and Circular Quay are transport hubs with ferry, rail, and bus interchanges. Chinatown, Darling Harbour, and Kings Cross are important locations for culture, tourism, and recreation. The Strand Arcade, which is located between Pitt Street Mall and George Street, is a historical Victorian-style shopping arcade. Opened on 1 April 1892, its shop fronts are an exact replica of the original internal shopping facades.[140] Westfield Sydney, located beneath the Sydney Tower, is the largest shopping centre by area in Sydney.[141] A typical inner-city street. Pictured: Paddington There is a long trend of gentrification amongst Sydney's inner suburbs. Pyrmont located on the harbour was redeveloped from a centre of shipping and international trade to an area of high density housing, tourist accommodation, and gambling.[142] Originally located well outside of the city, Darlinghurst is the location of the historic, former Darlinghurst Gaol, manufacturing, and mixed housing. It had a period when it was known as an area of prostitution. The terrace style housing has largely been retained and Darlinghurst has undergone significant gentrification since the 1980s.[143][144][145] Green Square is a former industrial area of Waterloo which is undergoing urban renewal worth $8 billion. On the city harbour edge, the historic suburb and wharves of Millers Point are being built up as the new area of Barangaroo. The enforced rehousing of local residents due to the Millers Point/Barangaroo development has caused significant controversy despite the $6 billion worth of economic activity it is expected to generate.[146][147] The suburb of Paddington is a well known suburb for its streets of restored terrace houses, Victoria Barracks, and shopping including the weekly Oxford Street markets.[148] Inner West King Street in Newtown is one of the most complete Victorian and Edwardian era commercial precincts in Australia. The Inner West generally includes the Inner West Council, Municipality of Burwood, Municipality of Strathfield, and City of Canada Bay. These span up to about 11 km west of the CBD. Suburbs in the Inner West have historically housed working class industrial workers, but have undergone gentrification over the 20th century. The region now mainly features medium- and high-density housing. Major features in the area include the University of Sydney and the Parramatta River, as well as a large cosmopolitan community and the nightlife hub on King Street in Newtown. The Anzac Bridge spans Johnstons Bay and connects Rozelle to Pyrmont and the City, forming part of the Western Distributor. The area is serviced by the T1, T2, and T3 railway lines, including the Main Suburban Line; which is the first to be constructed in New South Wales. Strathfield Railway Station is a secondary railway hub within Sydney, and major station on the Suburban and Northern lines. It was constructed in 1876,[149] and will be a future terminus of Parramatta Light Rail.[150] The area is also serviced by numerous bus routes and cycleways.[151] Other shopping centres in the area include Westfield Burwood and DFO in Homebush. Eastern suburbs Sydney skyline as viewed from Tasman Sea, overlooking the clifftop suburb of Vaucluse. The Eastern Suburbs encompass the Municipality of Woollahra, the City of Randwick, the Waverley Municipal Council, and parts of the Bayside Council. The Greater Sydney Commission envisions a resident population of 1,338,250 people by 2036 in its Eastern City District (including the City and Inner West).[152] They include some of the most affluent and advantaged areas in the country, with some streets being amongst the most expensive in the world. Wolseley Road, in Point Piper, has a top price of $20,900 per square metre, making it the ninth-most expensive street in the world.[153] More than 75% of neighbourhoods in the Electoral District of Wentworth fall under the top decile of SEIFA advantage, making it the least disadvantaged area in the country.[154] Major landmarks include Bondi Beach, a major tourist site; which was added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2008;[155] and Bondi Junction, featuring a Westfield shopping centre and an estimated office work force of 6,400 by 2035,[156] as well as a train station on the T4 Eastern Suburbs Line. The suburb of Randwick contains the Randwick Racecourse, the Royal Hospital for Women, the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney Children's Hospital, and the UNSW Kensington Campus. Randwick's 'Collaboration Area' has a baseline estimate of 32,000 jobs by 2036, according to the Greater Sydney Commission.[157] Construction of the CBD and South East Light Rail was completed in April 2020.[158] Main construction was due to be completed in 2018 but was delayed until 2020.[159] The project aims to provide reliable and high-capacity tram services to residents in the City and South-East. Major shopping centres in the area include Westfield Bondi Junction and Westfield Eastgardens. Southern Sydney Kurnell, La Perouse, Cronulla, along with various other suburbs face Botany Bay. Southern Sydney includes the suburbs in the local government areas of former Rockdale, Georges River Council (collectively known as the St George area), and broadly it also includes the suburbs in the local government area of Sutherland, south of the Georges River (colloquially known as 'The Shire'). The Kurnell peninsula, near Botany Bay, is the site of the first landfall on the eastern coastline made by Lt. (later Captain) James Cook in 1770. La Perouse, a historic suburb named after the French navigator Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse (1741–88), is notable for its old military outpost at Bare Island and the Botany Bay National Park. The suburb of Cronulla in southern Sydney is close to Royal National Park, Australia's oldest national park. Hurstville, a large suburb with a multitude of commercial buildings and high-rise residential buildings dominating the skyline, has become a CBD for the southern suburbs.[160] Northern Sydney Further information: Northern Sydney Chatswood is a major commercial district. 'Northern Sydney' may also include the suburbs in the Upper North Shore, Lower North Shore and the Northern Beaches. The Northern Suburbs include several landmarks – M

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  30. Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubːlika itaˈljaːna]),[13][14][15][16] is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europe,[17][18] and is also considered part of Western Europe.[19][20] A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital, the country covers a total area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mostly in insular Italy,[21] Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia of Southern Italy, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively. An Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe, North Africa and Asia. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became a leading cultural, political and religious centre, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's law, technology, economy, art, and literature developed.[22][23] Italy remained the homeland of the Romans and the metropole of the empire, whose legacy can also be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments, Christianity and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured the fall of the Western Roman Empire and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century numerous rival city-states and maritime republics, mainly in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through trade, commerce and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.[24] These mostly independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East, often enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe; however, part of central Italy was under the control of the theocratic Papal States, while Southern Italy remained largely feudal until the 19th century, partially as a result of a succession of Byzantine, Arab, Norman, Angevin, Aragonese and other foreign conquests of the region.[25] The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy's commercial and political power significantly waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean.[26] Centuries of foreign meddling and conquest and the rivalry and infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left Italy politically fragmented, and it was further conquered and divided among multiple foreign European powers over the centuries. By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was almost entirely unified in 1861, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power.[27] From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy rapidly industrialised, mainly in the north, and acquired a colonial empire,[28] while the south remained largely impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora.[29] Despite being one of the four main allied powers in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of the Italian fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the Italian Resistance, the country abolished their monarchy, established a democratic Republic, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, and became a highly developed country.[30] Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries,[30][31][32] with the world's eighth-largest economy by nominal GDP (third in the European Union), sixth-largest national wealth and third-largest central bank gold reserve. It ranks very highly in life expectancy, quality of life,[33] healthcare,[34] and education. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs; it is both a regional power[35][36] and a great power,[37][38] and is ranked the world's eighth most-powerful military. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Seven, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more. The country has long been a global centre of art, music, literature, philosophy, science and technology, and fashion, and has greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields including cinema, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence, banking and business.[39] As a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to the world's largest number of World Heritage Sites (55), and is the fifth-most visited country. Contents 1 Name 2 History 2.1 Prehistory and antiquity 2.2 Phoenician and Greek colonization 2.3 Ancient Rome 2.4 Middle Ages 2.5 Early Modern 2.6 Italian unification 2.7 Monarchical period 2.8 Fascist regime 2.9 Republican Italy 3 Geography 3.1 Waters 3.2 Volcanology 3.3 Environment 3.4 Biodiversity 3.5 Climate 4 Politics 4.1 Government 4.2 Law and criminal justice 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military 4.5 Constituent entities 5 Economy 5.1 Agriculture 5.2 Infrastructure 5.3 Energy 5.4 Science and technology 5.5 Tourism 6 Demographics 6.1 Metropolitan cities and larger urban zone 6.2 Immigration 6.3 Languages 6.4 Religion 6.5 Education 6.6 Health 6.7 North-South gap 7 Culture 7.1 Architecture 7.2 Visual art 7.3 Literature 7.4 Philosophy 7.5 Theatre 7.6 Music 7.7 Cinema 7.8 Sport 7.9 Fashion and design 7.10 Cuisine 7.11 Public holidays and festivals 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links Name Main article: Name of Italy Evolution of Italy in ancient times Hypotheses for the etymology of the name "Italia" are numerous.[40] One is that it was borrowed via Greek from the Oscan Víteliú 'land of calves' (cf. Lat vitulus "calf", Umb vitlo "calf").[41] Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus,[42] mentioned also by Aristotle[43] and Thucydides.[44] According to Antiochus of Syracuse, the term Italy was used by the Greeks to initially refer only to the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula corresponding to the modern province of Reggio and part of the provinces of Catanzaro and Vibo Valentia in southern Italy. Nevertheless, by his time the larger concept of Oenotria and "Italy" had become synonymous and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. According to Strabo's Geographica, before the expansion of the Roman Republic, the name was used by Greeks to indicate the land between the strait of Messina and the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto, corresponding roughly to the current region of Calabria. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name "Italia" to a larger region[45] In addition to the "Greek Italy" in the south, historians have suggested the existence of an "Etruscan Italy" covering variable areas of central Italy.[46] The borders of Roman Italy, Italia, are better established. Cato's Origines, the first work of history composed in Latin, described Italy as the entire peninsula south of the Alps.[47] According to Cato and several Roman authors, the Alps formed the "walls of Italy".[48] In 264 BC, Roman Italy extended from the Arno and Rubicon rivers of the centre-north to the entire south. The northern area of Cisalpine Gaul was occupied by Rome in the 220s BC and became considered geographically and de facto part of Italy,[49] but remained politically and de jure separated. It was legally merged into the administrative unit of Italy in 42 BC by the triumvir Octavian as a ratification of Caesar's unpublished acts (Acta Caesaris).[50][51][52][53][54] The islands of Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily and Malta were added to Italy by Diocletian in 292 AD.[55] History Main article: History of Italy Prehistory and antiquity Main articles: Prehistoric Italy, Italic peoples, Etruscan civilisation, Magna Graecia, and Nuragic civilisation Etruscan fresco in the Monterozzi necropolis, 5th century BC The Sassi cave houses of Matera are among the first human settlements in Italy dating back to the Paleolithic.[56] Thousands of Paleolithic-era artifacts have been recovered from Monte Poggiolo and dated to around 850,000 years before the present, making them the oldest evidence of first hominins habitation in the peninsula.[57] Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period some 200,000 years ago,[58] while modern Humans appeared about 40,000 years ago at Riparo Mochi.[59] Archaeological sites from this period include Addaura cave, Altamura, Ceprano, and Gravina in Puglia.[60] The Ancient peoples of pre-Roman Italy – such as the Umbrians, the Latins (from which the Romans emerged), Volsci, Oscans, Samnites, Sabines, the Celts, the Ligures, the Veneti, the Iapygians and many others – were Indo-European peoples, most of them specifically of the Italic group. The main historic peoples of possible non-Indo-European or pre-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans of central and northern Italy, the Elymians and the Sicani in Sicily, and the prehistoric Sardinians, who gave birth to the Nuragic civilisation. Other ancient populations being of undetermined language families and of possible non-Indo-European origin include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings in Valcamonica, the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.[61] A well-preserved natural mummy known as Ötzi the Iceman, determined to be 5,000 years old (between 3400 and 3100 BCE, Copper Age), was discovered in the Similaun glacier of South Tyrol in 1991.[62] The first foreign colonizers were the Phoenicians, who initially established colonies and founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia. Some of these soon became small urban centres and were developed parallel to the Greek colonies; among the main centres there were the cities of Motya, Zyz (modern Palermo), Soluntum in Sicily and Nora, Sulci, and Tharros in Sardinia.[63] Between the 17th and the 11th centuries BC Mycenaean Greeks established contacts with Italy[64][65][66][67] and in the 8th and 7th centuries BC a number of Greek colonies were established all along the coast of Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, that became known as Magna Graecia. The Greek colonization placed the Italic peoples in contact with democratic government forms and with elevated artistic and cultural expressions.[68] The temple of Concordia in Agrigento Phoenician and Greek colonization See also: Colonies in antiquity The first foreign colonizers were the Phoenicians, who initially founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia. Some of these quickly become small urban centers and develop parallel to the Greek colonies; among the main centers are the cities of Mozia, Zyz, Kfra in Sicily and Nora, Sulci, Tharros in Sardinia.[69] After the eighth century BC, colonizers from Greece settled on the coasts of southern Italy giving life to Magna Graecia and those of Sicily. Ionian settlers founded Elaia, Kyme, Rhegion, Parthènope, Naxos, Zankles, Hymera and Katane. Doric colonists founded Taras, Syrakousai, Megara Hyblaia, Leontinoi, Akragas, Ghelas; the Syracusans founded Ankón and Adria; the megarese founded Selinunte. The Achaeans founded Sybaris, Poseidonia, Kroton, Lokroi Epizephyrioi and Metapontum; tarantini and thuriots found Herakleia. The Greek colonization places the Italic peoples in contact with democratic forms of government and with high artistic and cultural expressions.[70] Ancient Rome Main article: Ancient Rome Further information: Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic, and Roman Empire The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70–80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, 117 AD Rome, a settlement around a ford on the river Tiber in central Italy conventionally founded in 753 BC, was ruled for a period of 244 years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings. The tradition handed down seven kings: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius and Tarquinius Superbus. In 509 BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city, favouring a government of the Senate and the People (SPQR) and establishing an oligarchic republic. The Italian Peninsula, named Italia, was consolidated into a single entity during the Roman expansion and conquest of new lands at the expense of the other Italic tribes, Etruscans, Celts, and Greeks. A permanent association with most of the local tribes and cities was formed, and Rome began the conquest of Western Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East. In the wake of Julius Caesar's rise and death in the first century BC, Rome grew over the course of centuries into a massive empire stretching from Britain to the borders of Persia, and engulfing the whole Mediterranean basin, in which Greek and Roman and many other cultures merged into a unique civilisation. The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustus, began a golden age of peace and prosperity. Italy remained the metropole of the empire, and as the homeland of the Romans and the territory of the capital, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina (ruler) of the provinces".[71] More than two centuries of stability followed, during which Italy was referred to as the rectrix mundi (queen of the world) and omnium terrarum parens (motherland of all lands).[72] The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time, and it was one of the largest empires in world history. At its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres.[73][74] The Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world; among the many legacies of Roman dominance are the widespread use of the Romance languages derived from Latin, the numerical system, the modern Western alphabet and calendar, and the emergence of Christianity as a major world religion.[75] The Indo-Roman trade relations, beginning around the 1st century BCE, testifies to extensive Roman trade in far away regions; many reminders of the commercial trade between the Indian subcontinent and Italy have been found, such as the ivory statuette Pompeii Lakshmi from the ruins of Pompeii. In a slow decline since the third century AD, the Empire split in two in 395 AD. The Western Empire, under the pressure of the barbarian invasions, eventually dissolved in 476 AD when its last emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacer. The Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years. Middle Ages Main article: Italy in the Middle Ages See also: Barbarian kingdoms The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy fell under the power of Odoacer's kingdom, and, later, was seized by the Ostrogoths,[76] followed in the 6th century by a brief reconquest under Byzantine Emperor Justinian. The invasion of another Germanic tribe, the Lombards, late in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1,300 years. Invasions of the peninsula caused a chaotic succession of barbarian kingdoms and the so-called "dark ages". The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy. Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding with the former (Ghibellines) or with the latter (Guelphs) from momentary convenience.[77] Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans to Central Asia and China.[78] The Germanic Emperor and the Roman Pontiff became the universal powers of medieval Europe. However, the conflict for the investiture controversy (a conflict over two radically different views of whether secular authorities such as kings, counts, or dukes, had any legitimate role in appointments to ecclesiastical offices) and the clash between Guelphs and Ghibellines led to the end of the Imperial-feudal system in the north of Italy where city-states gained independence. It was during this chaotic era that Italian towns saw the rise of a peculiar institution, the medieval commune. Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy See, local communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order.[79] The investiture controversy was finally resolved by the Concordat of Worms. In 1176 a league of city-states, the Lombard League, defeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano, thus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities. A 14th century conflict between Guelph and Ghibelline factions as portrayed in the Nuova Cronica by Giovanni Villani Italian city-states such as Milan, Florence and Venice played a crucial innovative role in financial development, devising the main instruments and practices of banking and the emergence of new forms of social and economic organization.[80] In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to the Orient. They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire. All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power. Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracy, the relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.[81] The four best known maritime republics were Venice, Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi; the others were Ancona, Gaeta, Noli, and Ragusa.[82][83][84] Each of the maritime republics had dominion over different overseas lands, including many Mediterranean islands (especially Sardinia and Corsica), lands on the Adriatic, Aegean, and Black Sea (Crimea), and commercial colonies in the Near East and in North Africa. Venice maintained enormous tracts of land in Greece, Cyprus, Istria and Dalmatia until as late as the mid-17th century.[85] Map Left: Flag of the Italian Navy, displaying the coat of arms of Venice, Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi, the most prominent maritime republics. Right: Trade routes and colonies of the Genoese (red) and Venetian (green) empires. Venice and Genoa were Europe's main gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk, wool, banks and jewellery. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned. The republics were heavily involved in the Crusades, providing support and transport, but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars.[81] Italy first felt huge economic changes in Europe which led to the commercial revolution: the Republic of Venice was able to defeat the Byzantine Empire and finance the voyages of Marco Polo to Asia; the first universities were formed in Italian cities, and scholars such as Thomas Aquinas obtained international fame; Frederick of Sicily made Italy the political-cultural centre of a reign that temporarily included the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Jerusalem; capitalism and banking families emerged in Florence, where Dante and Giotto were active around 1300.[24] In the south, Sicily had become an Islamic emirate in the 9th century, thriving until the Italo-Normans conquered it in the late 11th century together with most of the Lombard and Byzantine principalities of southern Italy.[86] Through a complex series of events, southern Italy developed as a unified kingdom, first under the House of Hohenstaufen, then under the Capetian House of Anjou and, from the 15th century, the House of Aragon. In Sardinia, the former Byzantine provinces became independent states known in Italian as Judicates, although some parts of the island fell under Genoese or Pisan rule until the eventual Aragonese annexation in the 15th century. The Black Death pandemic of 1348 left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population.[87][88] However, the recovery from the plague led to a resurgence of cities, trade and economy which allowed the bloom of Humanism and Renaissance, that later spread to Europe. Early Modern Main articles: Italian Renaissance, Italian Wars, and History of Italy (1559–1814) The Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494 Italy was the birthplace and heart of the Renaissance during the 1400s and 1500s. The Italian Renaissance marked the transition from the medieval period to the modern age as Europe recovered, economically and culturally, from the crises of the Late Middle Ages and entered the Early Modern Period. The Italian polities were now regional states effectively ruled by Princes, de facto monarchs in control of trade and administration, and their courts became major centres of Arts and Sciences. The Italian princedoms represented a first form of modern states as opposed to feudal monarchies and multinational empires. The princedoms were led by political dynasties and merchant families such as the Medici in Florence, the Visconti and Sforza in the Duchy of Milan, the Doria in the Republic of Genoa, the Mocenigo and Barbarigo in the Republic of Venice, the Este in Ferrara, and the Gonzaga in Mantua.[89][90] The Renaissance was therefore a result of the great wealth accumulated by Italian merchant cities combined with the patronage of its dominant families.[89] Italian Renaissance exercised a dominant influence on subsequent European painting and sculpture for centuries afterwards, with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Michelangelo, Raphael, Giotto, Donatello, and Titian, and architects such as Filippo Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Donato Bramante. Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait (ca. 1512, Royal Library, Turin) Following the conclusion of the western schism in favour of Rome at the Council of Constance (1415–1417), the new Pope Martin V returned to the Papal States after a three years-long journey that touched many Italian cities and restored Italy as the sole centre of Western Christianity. During the course of this voyage, the Medici Bank was made the official credit institution of the Papacy and several significant ties were established between the Church and the new political dynasties of the peninsula. The Popes' status as elective monarchs turned the conclaves and consistories of the Renaissance into political battles between the courts of Italy for primacy in the peninsula and access to the immense resources of the Catholic Church. In 1439, Pope Eugenius IV and the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos signed a reconciliation agreement between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church at the Council of Florence hosted by Cosimo the old de Medici. In 1453, Italian forces under Giovanni Giustiniani were sent by Pope Nicholas V to defend the Walls of Constantinople but the decisive battle was lost to the more advanced Turkish army equipped with cannons, and Byzantium fell to Sultan Mehmed II. The fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, fueling the rediscovery of Greco-Roman Humanism.[91][92][93] Humanist rulers such as Federico da Montefeltro and Pope Pius II worked to establish ideal cities where man is the measure of all things, and therefore founded Urbino and Pienza respectively. Pico della Mirandola wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man, considered the manifesto of Renaissance Humanism, in which he stressed the importance of free will in human beings. The humanist historian Leonardo Bruni was the first to divide human history in three periods: Antiquity, Middle Ages and Modernity.[94] The second consequence of the Fall of Constantinople was the beginning of the Age of Discovery. Christopher Columbus leads an expedition to the New World, 1492. His voyages are celebrated as the discovery of the Americas from a European perspective, and they opened a new era in the history of humankind and sustained contact between the two worlds. Italian explorers and navigators from the dominant maritime republics, eager to find an alternative route to the Indies in order to bypass the Ottoman Empire, offered their services to monarchs of Atlantic countries and played a key role in ushering the Age of Discovery and the European colonization of the Americas. The most notable among them were: Christopher Columbus, colonizer in the name of Spain, who is credited with discovering the New World and the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement by Europeans;[95] John Cabot, sailing for England, who was the first European to set foot in "New Found Land" and explore parts of the North American continent in 1497;[96] Amerigo Vespucci, sailing for Portugal, who first demonstrated in about 1501 that the New World (in particular Brazil) was not Asia as initially conjectured, but a fourth continent previously unknown to people of the Old World (America is named after him);[97][98] and Giovanni da Verrazzano, at the service of France, renowned as the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between Florida and New Brunswick in 1524;[99] Following the fall of Constantinople, the wars in Lombardy came to an end and a defensive alliance known as Italic League was formed between Venice, Naples, Florence, Milan, and the Papacy. Lorenzo the Magnificent de Medici was the greatest Florentine patron of the Renaissance and supporter of the Italic League. He notably avoided the collapse of the League in the aftermath of the Pazzi Conspiracy and during the aborted invasion of Italy by the Turks. However, the military campaign of Charles VIII of France in Italy caused the end of the Italic League and initiated the Italian Wars between the Valois and the Habsburgs. During the High Renaissance of the 1500s, Italy was therefore both the main European battleground and the cultural-economic centre of the continent. Popes such as Julius II (1503–1513) fought for the control of Italy against foreign monarchs, others such as Paul III (1534–1549) preferred to mediate between the European powers in order to secure peace in Italy. In the middle of this conflict, the Medici popes Leo X (1513–1521) and Clement VII (1523–1534) opposed the Protestant reformation and advanced the interests of their family. The end of the wars ultimately left northern Italy indirectly subject to the Austrian Habsburgs and Southern Italy under direct Spanish Habsburg rule. The Papacy remained independent and launched the Counter-reformation. Key events of the period include: the Council of Trent (1545–1563); the excommunication of Elizabeth I (1570) and the Battle of Lepanto (1571), both occurring during the pontificate of Pius V; the construction of the Gregorian observatory, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and the Jesuit China mission of Matteo Ricci under Pope Gregory XIII; the French Wars of Religion; the Long Turkish War and the execution of Giordano Bruno in 1600, under Pope Clement VIII; the birth of the Lyncean Academy of the Papal States, of which the main figure was Galileo Galilei (later put on trial); the final phases of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) during the pontificates of Urban VIII and Innocent X; and the formation of the last Holy League by Innocent XI during the Great Turkish War The Italian economy declined during the 1600s and 1700s, as the peninsula was excluded from the rising Atlantic slave trade. Following the European wars of succession of the 18th century, the south passed to a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons and the North fell under the influence of the Habsburg-Lorraine of Austria. During the Coalition Wars, northern-central Italy was reorganised by Napoleon in a number of Sister Republics of France and later as a Kingdom of Italy in personal union with the French Empire.[100] The southern half of the peninsula was administered by Joachim Murat, Napoleon's brother-in-law, who was crowned as King of Naples. The 1814 Congress of Vienna restored the situation of the late 18th century, but the ideals of the French Revolution could not be eradicated, and soon re-surfaced during the political upheavals that characterised the first part of the 19th century. Italian unification Main article: Italian unification Giuseppe Mazzini (left), highly influential leader of the Italian revolutionary movement; and Giuseppe Garibaldi (right), celebrated as one of the greatest generals of modern times[101] and as the "Hero of the Two Worlds",[102] who commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led to Italian unification The birth of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. Following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the political and social Italian unification movement, or Risorgimento, emerged to unite Italy consolidating the different states of the peninsula and liberate it from foreign control. A prominent radical figure was the patriotic journalist Giuseppe Mazzini, member of the secret revolutionary society Carbonari and founder of the influential political movement Young Italy in the early 1830s, who favoured a unitary republic and advocated a broad nationalist movement. His prolific output of propaganda helped the unification movement stay active. Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871 The most famous member of Young Italy was the revolutionary and general Giuseppe Garibaldi, renowned for his extremely loyal followers,[103] who led the Italian republican drive for unification in Southern Italy. However, the Northern Italy monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Sardinia, whose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, also had ambitions of establishing a united Italian state. In the context of the 1848 liberal revolutions that swept through Europe, an unsuccessful first war of independence was declared on Austria. In 1855, the Kingdom of Sardinia became an ally of Britain and France in the Crimean War, giving Cavour's diplomacy legitimacy in the eyes of the great powers.[104][105] The Kingdom of Sardinia again attacked the Austrian Empire in the Second Italian War of Independence of 1859, with the aid of France, resulting in liberating Lombardy. In 1860–1861, Garibaldi led the drive for unification in Naples and Sicily (the Expedition of the Thousand),[106] while the House of Savoy troops occupied the central territories of the Italian peninsula, except Rome and part of Papal States. Teano was the site of the famous meeting of 26 October 1860 between Giuseppe Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II, last King of Sardinia, in which Garibaldi shook Victor Emanuel's hand and hailed him as King of Italy; thus, Garibaldi sacrificed republican hopes for the sake of Italian unity under a monarchy. Cavour agreed to include Garibaldi's Southern Italy allowing it to join the union with the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1860. This allowed the Sardinian government to declare a united Italian kingdom on 17 March 1861.[107] Victor Emmanuel II then became the first king of a united Italy, and the capital was moved from Turin to Florence. In 1866, Victor Emmanuel II allied with Prussia during the Austro-Prussian War, waging the Third Italian War of Independence which allowed Italy to annexe Venetia. Finally, in 1870, as France abandoned its garrisons in Rome during the disastrous Franco-Prussian War to keep the large Prussian Army at bay, the Italians rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the Papal States. Italian unification was completed and shortly afterwards Italy's capital was moved to Rome. Victor Emmanuel, Garibaldi, Cavour and Mazzini have been referred as Italy's Four Fathers of the Fatherland.[101] Monarchical period Main articles: Kingdom of Italy, Italian Empire, and Military history of Italy during World War I Victor Emmanuel II and Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, leading figures in the Italian unification, became respectively the 1st king and 1st Prime Minister of Italy. The new Kingdom of Italy obtained Great Power status. The Constitutional Law of the Kingdom of Sardinia the Albertine Statute of 1848, was extended to the whole Kingdom of Italy in 1861, and provided for basic freedoms of the new State, but electoral laws excluded the non-propertied and uneducated classes from voting. The government of the new kingdom took place in a framework of parliamentary constitutional monarchy dominated by liberal forces. As Northern Italy quickly industrialised, the South and rural areas of the North remained underdeveloped and overpopulated, forcing millions of people to migrate abroad and fuelling a large and influential diaspora. The Italian Socialist Party constantly increased in strength, challenging the traditional liberal and conservative establishment. The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, a national symbol of Italy celebrating the first king of the unified country, and resting place of the Unknown Soldier since the end of World War I Starting from the last two decades of the 19th century, Italy developed into a colonial power by forcing under its rule Eritrea and Somalia in East Africa, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica in North Africa (later unified in the colony of Libya) and the Dodecanese islands.[108] From 2 November 1899 to 7 September 1901, Italy also participated as part of the Eight-Nation Alliance forces during the Boxer Rebellion in China; on 7 September 1901, a concession in Tientsin was ceded to the country, and on 7 June 1902, the concession was taken into Italian possession and administered by a consul. In 1913, male universal suffrage was adopted. The pre-war period dominated by Giovanni Giolitti, Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921, was characterized by the economic, industrial and political-cultural modernization of Italian society. Italy, nominally allied with the German Empire and the Empire of Austria-Hungary in the Triple Alliance, in 1915 joined the Allies into World War I with a promise of substantial territorial gains, that included western Inner Carniola, former Austrian Littoral, Dalmatia as well as parts of the Ottoman Empire. The country gave a fundamental contribution to the victory of the conflict as one of the "Big Four" top Allied powers. The war was initially inconclusive, as the Italian army got stuck in a long attrition war in the Alps, making little progress and suffering very heavy losses. However, the reorganization of the army and the conscription of the so-called '99 Boys (Ragazzi del '99, all males born in 1899 who were turning 18) led to more effective Italian victories in major battles, such as on Monte Grappa and in a series of battles on the Piave river. Eventually, in October 1918, the Italians launched a massive offensive, culminating in the victory of Vittorio Veneto. The Italian victory[109][110][111] marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and was chiefly instrumental in ending the First World War less than two weeks later. During the war, more than 650,000 Italian soldiers and as many civilians died[112] and the kingdom went to the brink of bankruptcy. Under the Peace Treaties of Saint-Germain, Rapallo and Rome, Italy gained a permanent seat in the League of Nations's executive council and obtained most of the promised territories, but not Dalmatia (except Zara), allowing nationalists to define the victory as "mutilated". Moreover, Italy annexed the Hungarian harbour of Fiume, that was not part of territories promised at London but had been occupied after the end of the war by Gabriele D'Annunzio. Fascist regime Main articles: Italian Fascism, Fascist Italy (1922–1943), and Military history of Italy during World War II Benito Mussolini, Duce of Fascist Italy The socialist agitations that followed the devastation of the Great War, inspired by the Russian Revolution, led to counter-revolution and repression throughout Italy. The liberal establishment, fearing a Soviet-style revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Party, led by Benito Mussolini. In October 1922 the Blackshirts of the National Fascist Party attempted a coup named the "March on Rome" which failed but at the last minute, King Victor Emmanuel III refused to proclaim a state of siege and appointed Mussolini prime minister. Over the next few years, Mussolini banned all political parties and curtailed personal liberties, thus forming a dictatorship. These actions attracted international attention and eventually inspired similar dictatorships such as Nazi Germany and Francoist Spain. In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and founded the Italian East Africa, resulting in an international alienation and leading to Italy's withdrawal from the League of Nations; Italy allied with Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan and strongly supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish civil war. In 1939, Italy annexed Albania, a de facto protectorate for decades. Italy entered World War II on 10 June 1940. After initially advancing in British Somaliland, Egypt, the Balkans and eastern fronts, the Italians were defeated in East Africa, Soviet Union and North Africa. Map of the Italian Empire at its maximum extent, with colonies in light green and protectorates or occupied areas during World War II in grey The Armistice of Villa Giusti, which ended fighting between Italy and Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, resulted in Italian annexation of neighbouring parts of Yugoslavia. During the interwar period, the fascist Italian government undertook a campaign of Italianisation in the areas it annexed, which suppressed Slavic language, schools, political parties, and cultural institutions. During World War II, Italian war crimes included extrajudicial killings and ethnic cleansing[113] by deportation of about 25,000 people, mainly Jews, Croats, and Slovenians, to the Italian concentration camps, such as Rab, Gonars, Monigo, Renicci di Anghiari and elsewhere. In Italy and Yugoslavia, unlike in Germany, few war crimes were prosecuted.[114][115][116][117] Yugoslav Partisans perpetrated their own crimes during and after the war, including the foibe killings. Meanwhile, about 250,000 Italians and anti-communist Slavs fled to Italy in the Istrian exodus. An Allied invasion of Sicily began in July 1943, leading to the collapse of the Fascist regime and the fall of Mussolini on 25 July. Mussolini was deposed and arrested by order of King Victor Emmanuel III in co-operation with the majority of the members of the Grand Council of Fascism, which passed a motion of no confidence. On 8 September, Italy signed the Armistice of Cassibile, ending its war with the Allies. The Germans helped by the Italian fascists shortly succeeded in taking control of northern and central Italy. The country remained a battlefield for the rest of the war, as the Allies were slowly moving up from the south. In the north, the Germans set up the Italian Social Republic (RSI), a Nazi puppet state with Mussolini installed as leader after he was rescued by German paratroopers. Some Italian troops in the south were organized into the Italian Co-belligerent Army, which fought alongside the Allies for the rest of the war, while other Italian troops, loyal to Mussolini and his RSI, continued to fight alongside the Germans in the National Republican Army. As result, the country descended into civil war. Also, the post-armistice period saw the rise of a large anti-fascist resistance movement, the Resistenza, which fought a guerilla war against the German and RSI forces. In late April 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape north,[118] but was captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Italian partisans. His body was then taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.[119] Hostilities ended on 29 April 1945, when the German forces in Italy surrendered. Nearly half a million Italians (including civilians) died in the conflict,[120] and the Italian economy had been all but destroyed; per capita income in 1944 was at its lowest point since the beginning of the 20th century.[121] Republican Italy Main article: History of the Italian Republic Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union Italy became a republic after a referendum[122] held on 2 June 1946, a day celebrated since as Republic Day. This was also the first time that Italian women were entitled to vote.[123] Victor Emmanuel III's son, Umberto II, was forced to abdicate and exiled. The Republican Constitution was approved on 1 January 1948. Under the Treaty of Peace with Italy of 1947, most of the Julian March was lost to Yugoslavia and, later, the Free Territory of Trieste was divided between the two states. Italy also lost all of its colonial possessions, formally ending the Italian Empire. In 1950, Italian Somaliland was made a United Nations Trust Territory under Italian administration until 1 July 1960. The Italian border that applies today has existed since 1975, when Trieste was formally annexed to Italy. Fears of a possible Communist takeover (especially in the United States) proved crucial for the first universal suffrage electoral outcome on 18 April 1948, when the Christian Democrats, under the leadership of Alcide De Gasperi, obtained a landslide victory.[124][125] Consequently, in 1949 Italy became a member of NATO. The Marshall Plan helped to revive the Italian economy which, until the late 1960s, enjoyed a period of sustained economic growth commonly called the "Economic Miracle". In 1957, Italy was a founding member of the European Economic Community (EEC), which became the European Union (EU) in 1993. The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the European Economic Community, forerunner of the present-day European Union. Italy is a founding member of all EU institutions. From the late 1960s until the early 1980s, the country experienced the Years of Lead, a period characterised by economic crisis (especially after the 1973 oil crisis), widespread social conflicts and terrorist massacres carried out by opposing extremist groups, with the alleged involvement of US and Soviet intelligence.[126][127][128] The Years of Lead culminated in the assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro in 1978 and the Bologna railway station massacre in 1980, where 85 people died. In the 1980s, for the first time since 1945, two governments were led by non-Christian-Democrat premiers: one republican (Giovanni Spadolini) and one socialist (Bettino Craxi); the Christian Democrats remained, however, the main government party. During Craxi's government, the economy recovered and Italy became the world's fifth-largest industrial nation after it gained the entry into the Group of Seven in the 1970s. However, as a result of his spending policies, the Italian national debt skyrocketed during the Craxi era, soon passing 100% of the country's GDP. Italy faced several terror attacks between 1992 and 1993 perpetrated by the Sicilian Mafia as a consequence of several life sentences pronounced during the "Maxi Trial", and of the new anti-mafia measures launched by the government. In 1992, two major dynamite attacks killed the judges Giovanni Falcone (23 May in the Capaci bombing) and Paolo Borsellino (19 July in the Via D'Amelio bombing).[129] One year later (May–July 1993), tourist spots were attacked, such as the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, Via Palestro in Milan, and the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome, leaving 10 dead and 93 injured and causing severe damage to cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. The Catholic Church openly condemned the Mafia, and two churches were bombed and an anti-Mafia priest shot dead in Rome.[130][131][132] Also in the early 1990s, Italy faced significant challenges, as voters – disenchanted with political paralysis, massive public debt and the extensive corruption system (known as Tangentopoli) uncovered by the Clean Hands (Mani Pulite) investigation – demanded radical reforms. The scandals involved all major parties, but especially those in the government coalition: the Christian Democrats, who ruled for almost 50 years, underwent a severe crisis and eventually disbanded, splitting up into several factions.[133] The Communists reorganised as a social-democratic force. During the 1990s and the 2000s, centre-right (dominated by media magnate Silvio Berlusconi) and centre-left coalitions (led by university professor Romano Prodi) alternately governed the country. Amidst the Great Recession, Berlusconi resigned in 2011, and his conservative government was replaced by the technocratic cabinet of Mario Monti.[134] Following the 2013 general election, the Vice-Secretary of the Democratic Party Enrico Letta formed a new government at the head of a right-left Grand coalition. In 2014, challenged by the new Secretary of the PD Matteo Renzi, Letta resigned and was replaced by Renzi. The new government started important constitutional reforms such as the abolition of the Senate and a new electoral law. On 4 December the constitutional reform was rejected in a referendum and Renzi resigned; the Foreign Affairs Minister Paolo Gentiloni was appointed new Prime Minister.[135] President Sergio Mattarella at the Altar of the Fatherland, wearing a protection mask during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the European migrant crisis of the 2010s, Italy was the entry point and leading destination for most asylum seekers entering the EU. From 2013 to 2018, the country took in over 700,000 migrants and refugees,[136] mainly from sub-Saharan Africa,[137] which caused great strain on the public purse and a surge in the support for far-right or eurosceptic political parties.[138][139] The 2018 general election was characterized by a strong showing of the Five Star Movement and the League and the university professor Giuseppe Conte became the Prime Minister at the head of a populist coalition between these two parties.[140] However, after only fourteen months the League withdrew its support to Conte, who formed a new unprecedented government coalition between the Five Star Movement and the centre-left.[141][142] In 2020, Italy was severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic.[143] From March to May, Conte's government imposed a national lockdown as a measure to limit the spread of the disease,[144][145] while further restrictions were introduced during the following winter.[146] The measures, despite being widely approved by the public opinion,[147] were also described as the largest suppression of constitutional rights in the history of the republic.[148][149] With more than 90,000 confirmed victims, Italy was one of the countries with the highest total number of deaths in the worldwide coronavirus pandemic.[150] The pandemic caused also a severe economic disruption, in which Italy resulted as one of the most affected countries.[151] In February 2021, after a government crisis within his majority, Conte was forced to resign and Mario Draghi, former president of the European Central Bank, formed a new national unity government supported by almost all the main parties.[152] Geography Main article: Geography of Italy Topographic map of Italy Italy is located in Southern Europe (it is also considered a part of western Europe)[19] between latitudes 35° and 47° N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E. To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia and is roughly delimited by the Alpine watershed, enclosing the Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia (the two biggest islands of the Mediterranean), in addition to many smaller islands. The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy,[153][154] while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland.[155] The country's total area is 301,230 square kilometres (116,306 sq mi), of which 294,020 km2 (113,522 sq mi) is land and 7,210 km2 (2,784 sq mi) is water.[156] Including the islands, Italy has a coastline and border of 7,600 kilometres (4,722 miles) on the Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian seas (740 km (460 mi)), and borders shared with France (488 km (303 mi)), Austria (430 km (267 mi)), Slovenia (232 km (144 mi)) and Switzerland (740 km (460 mi)). San Marino (39 km (24 mi)) and Vatican City (3.2 km (2.0 mi)), both enclaves, account for the remainder.[156] Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) in Aosta Valley, the highest point in the European Union Appennine landscape in Marche Over 35% of the Italian territory is mountainous.[157] The Apennine Mountains form the peninsula's backbone, and the Alps form most of its northern boundary, where Italy's highest point is located on Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) (4,810 m or 15,780 ft).[note 1] Other worldwide-known mountains in Italy include the Matterhorn (Monte Cervino), Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso in the West Alps, and Bernina, Stelvio and Dolomites along the eastern side. The Po, Italy's longest river (652 kilometres or 405 miles), flows from the Alps on the western border with France and crosses the Padan plain on its way to the Adriatic Sea. The Po Valley is the largest plain in Italy, with 46,000 km2 (18,000 sq mi), and it represents over 70% of the total plain area in the country.[157] Many elements of the Italian territory are of volcanic origin. Most of the small islands and archipelagos in the south, like Capraia, Ponza, Ischia, Eolie, Ustica and Pantelleria are volcanic islands. There are also active volcanoes: Mount Etna in Sicily (the largest active volcano in Europe), Vulcano, Stromboli, and Vesuvius (the only active volcano on mainland Europe). The five largest lakes are, in order of diminishing size:[158] Garda (367.94 km2 or 142 sq mi), Maggiore (212.51 km2 or 82 sq mi, whose minor northern part is Switzerland), Como (145.9 km2 or 56 sq mi), Trasimeno (124.29 km2 or 48 sq mi) and Bolsena (113.55 km2 or 44 sq mi). Although the country includes the Italian peninsula, adjacent islands, and most of the southern Alpine basin, some of Italy's territory extends beyond the Alpine basin and some islands are located outside the Eurasian continental shelf. These territories are the comuni of: Livigno, Sexten, Innichen, Toblach (in part), Chiusaforte, Tarvisio, Graun im Vinschgau (in part), which are all part of the Danube's drainage basin, while the Val di Lei constitutes part of the Rhine's basin and the islands of Lampedusa and Lampione are on the African continental shelf. Waters See also: List of rivers of Italy and List of lakes of Italy Cinque Terre on the Italian Riviera Flamingos in the delta of the Po river Four different seas surround the Italian Peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea from three sides: the Adriatic Sea in the east,[159] the Ionian Sea in the south,[160] and the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the west.[161] Including islands, Italy has a coastline of 7,900 km.[162][163][164] Italian coasts include the Amalfi Coast, Cilentan Coast, Coast of the Gods, Costa Verde, Riviera delle Palme, Riviera del Brenta, Costa Smeralda and Trabocchi Coast. The Italian Riviera includes nearly all of the coastline of Liguria, extending from the border with France near Ventimiglia eastwards to Capo Corvo, which marks the eastern end of the Gulf of La Spezia.[165][166] The Apennines run along the entire length of the peninsula, dividing the waters into two opposite sides. On the other hand, the rivers are numerous due to the relative abundance of rains and to the presence of the Alpine chain in northern Italy with snowfields and glaciers. The fundamental watershed follows the ridge of the Alps and the Apennines and delimits five main slopes, corresponding to the seas into which the rivers flow: the Adriatic, Ionic, Tyrrhenian, Ligurian and Mediterranean sides.[167] Taking into consideration their origin, the Italian rivers can be divided into two main groups: the Alpine-Po rivers and the Apennine-island rivers.[167] Most of the rivers of Italy drain either into the Adriatic Sea, such as the Po, Piave, Adige, Brenta, Tagliamento, and Reno, or into the Tyrrhenian, like the Arno, Tiber and Volturno. The waters from some border municipalities (Livigno in Lombardy, Innichen and Sexten in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol) drain into the Black Sea through the basin of the Drava, a tributary of the Danube, and the waters from the Lago di Lei in Lombardy drain into the North Sea through the basin of the Rhine.[168] Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands The longest Italian river is Po, which flows either 652 km (405 mi) or 682 km (424 mi) (considering the length of the right bank tributary Maira) and whose headwaters are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po under the northwest face of Monviso. The vast valley around the Po is called Po Valley (Italian: Pianura Padana or Val Padana) the main industrial area of the country; in 2002, more than 16 million people lived there, at the time nearly ⅓ of the population of Italy.[169] The second longest Italian river is Adige, which originates near Lake Resia and flows into the Adriatic Sea, after having made a north–south route, near Chioggia.[170] In the north of the country are a number of large subalpine moraine-dammed lakes, commonly referred to as the Italian Lakes. There are more than 1000 lakes in Italy,[171] the largest of which is Garda (370 km2 or 143 sq mi). Other well-known subalpine lakes are Lake Maggiore (212.5 km2 or 82 sq mi), whose most northerly section is part of Switzerland, Como (146 km2 or 56 sq mi), one of the deepest lakes in Europe, Orta, Lugano, Iseo, and Idro.[172] Other notable lakes in the Italian peninsula are Trasimeno, Bolsena, Bracciano, Vico, Varano and Lesina in Gargano and Omodeo in Sardinia.[173] Along the Italian coasts there are lagoons, including the Venice, Grado Lagoon and Marano lagoons in northern Adriatic, and the Orbetello lagoon on the Tuscan coast. The swamps and ponds that in the past covered vast flat areas of Italy, have largely been dried up in recent centuries;[171] the few remaining wetlands, such as the Comacchio Valleys in Emilia-Romagna or the Stagno di Cagliari in Sardinia, are protected natural environments.[171] Volcanology See also: Volcanology of Italy Mount Etna, one of the world's most active volcanoes Mount Vesuvius, one of the world's most densely-populated volcanoes The country is situated at the meeting point of the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, leading to considerable seismic and volcanic activity. There are 14 volcanoes in Italy, four of which are active: Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano and Vesuvius. The last is the only active volcano in mainland Europe and is most famous for the destruction of Pompeii and Herculanum in the eruption in 79 AD. Several islands and hills have been created by volcanic activity, and there is still a large active caldera, the Campi Flegrei north-west of Naples. The high volcanic and magmatic neogenic activity is subdivided into provinces: Magmatic Tuscan (Monti Cimini, Tolfa and Amiata);[174][175] Magmatic Latium (Monti Volsini, Vico nel Lazio, Colli Albani, Roccamonfina);[175][176] Ultra-alkaline Umbrian Latium District (San Venanzo, Cupaello and Polino);[175][176] Volcanic bell (Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, Ischia);[175][176] Windy arch and Tyrrhenian basin (Aeolian Islands and Tyrrhenian seamounts);[175][176] African-Adriatic Avampa (Channel of Sicily, Graham Island, Etna and Mount Vulture).[175][176] Italy was the first country to exploit geothermal energy to produce electricity.[177] The high geothermal gradient that forms part of the peninsula makes potentially exploitable also other provinces: research carried out in the 1960s and 1970s identifies potential geothermal fields in Lazio and Tuscany, as well as in most volcanic islands.[177] Environment See also: List of national parks of Italy and List of regional parks of Italy National and regional parks in Italy After its quick industrial growth, Italy took a long time to confront its environmental problems. After several improvements, it now ranks 84th in the world for ecological sustainability.[178] National parks cover about 5% of the country.[179] In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world's leading producers of renewable energy, ranking as the world's fourth largest holder of installed solar energy capacity[180][181] and the sixth largest holder of wind power capacity in 2010.[182] Renewable energies now make up about 12% of the total primary and final energy consumption in Italy, with a future target share set at 17% for the year 2020.[183] However, air pollution remains a severe problem, especially in the industrialised north, reaching the tenth highest level worldwide of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in the 1990s.[184] Italy is the twelfth largest carbon dioxide producer.[185][186] Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national park. Extensive traffic and congestion in the largest metropolitan areas continue to cause severe environmental and health issues, even if smog levels have decreased dramatically since the 1970s and 1980s, and the presence of smog is becoming an increasingly rarer phenomenon and levels of sulphur dioxide are decreasing.[187] Many watercourses and coastal stretches have also been contaminated by industrial and agricultural activity, while because of rising water levels, Venice has been regularly flooded throughout recent years. Waste from industrial activity is not always disposed of by legal means and has led to permanent health effects on inhabitants of affected areas, as in the case of the Seveso disaster. The country has also operated several nuclear reactors between 1963 and 1990 but, after the Chernobyl disaster and a referendum on the issue the nuclear programme was terminated, a decision that was overturned by the government in 2008, planning to build up to four nuclear power plants with French technology. This was in turn struck down by a referendum following the Fukushima nuclear accident.[188] Deforestation, illegal building developments and poor land-management policies have led to significant erosion all over Italy's mountainous regions, leading to major ecological disasters like the 1963 Vajont Dam flood, the 1998 Sarno[189] and 2009 Messina mudslides. The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.65/10, ranking it 142nd globally out of 172 countries.[190] Biodiversity Main articles: Fauna of Italy and Flora of Italy The Italian wolf, which inhabits the Apennines and Western Alps, features prominently in Latin and Italian cultures, such as in the legend of the founding of Rome.[191] Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna.[192] Italy's varied geological structure contributes to its high climate and habitat diversity. The Italian peninsula is in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, forming a corridor between central Europe and North Africa, and has 8,000 km (5,000 mi) of coastline. Italy also receives species from the Balkans, Eurasia, the Middle East. Italy's varied geological structure, including the Alps and the Apennines, Central Italian woodlands, and Southern Italian Garigue and Maquis shrubland, also contributes to high climate and habitat diversity. Italian fauna includes 4,777 endemic animal species, which include the Sardinian long-eared bat, Sardinian red deer, spectacled salamander, brown cave salamander, Italian newt, Italian frog, Apennine yellow-bellied toad, Aeolian wall lizard, Sicilian wall lizard, Italian Aesculapian snake, and Sicilian pond turtle. There are 102 mammals species (most notably the Italian wolf, Marsican brown bear, Pyrenean chamois, Alpine ibex, crested porcupine, Mediterranean monk seal, Alpine marmot, Etruscan shrew, and European snow vole), 516 bird species and 56,213 invertebrate species. The flora of Italy was traditionally estimated to comprise about 5,500 vascular plant species.[193] However, as of 2005, 6,759 species are recorded in the Data bank of Italian vascular flora.[194] Italy is a signatory to the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats and the Habitats Directive both affording protection to Italian fauna and flora. Climate Main article: Climate of Italy See also: List of rivers of Italy and List of lakes of Italy Köppen-Geiger climate classification map of Italy[195] Southern Italy has a Mediterranean climate (Levanzo island pictured). Because of the great longitudinal extension of the peninsula and the mostly mountainous internal conformation, the climate of Italy is highly diverse. In most of the inland northern and central regions, the climate ranges from humid subtropical to humid continental and oceanic. In particular, the climate of the Po valley geographical region is mostly continental, with harsh winters and hot summers.[196][197] The coastal areas of Liguria, Tuscany and most of the South generally fit the Mediterranean climate stereotype (Köppen climate classification Csa). Conditions on peninsular coastal areas can be very different from the interior's higher ground and valleys, particularly during the winter months when the higher altitudes tend to be cold, wet, and often snowy. The coastal regions have mild winters and warm and generally dry summers, although lowland valleys can be quite hot in summer. Average winter temperatures vary from 0 °C (32 °F) on the Alps to 12 °C (54 °F) in Sicily, so average summer temperatures range from 20 °C (68 °F) to over 25 °C (77 °F). Winters can vary widely across the country with lingering cold, foggy and snowy periods in the north and milder, sunnier conditions in the south. Summers can be hot and humid across the country, particularly in the south while northern and central areas can experience occasional strong thunderstorms from spring to autumn.[198] Politics Main article: Politics of Italy Italy has been a unitary parliamentary republic since 2 June 1946, when the monarchy was abolished by a constitutional referendum. The President of Italy (Presidente della Repubblica), currently Sergio Mattarella since 2015, is Italy's head of state. The President is elected for a single seven years mand

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  31. Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubːlika itaˈljaːna]),[13][14][15][16] is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europe,[17][18] and is also considered part of Western Europe.[19][20] A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital, the country covers a total area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mostly in insular Italy,[21] Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia of Southern Italy, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively. An Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe, North Africa and Asia. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became a leading cultural, political and religious centre, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's law, technology, economy, art, and literature developed.[22][23] Italy remained the homeland of the Romans and the metropole of the empire, whose legacy can also be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments, Christianity and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured the fall of the Western Roman Empire and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century numerous rival city-states and maritime republics, mainly in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through trade, commerce and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.[24] These mostly independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East, often enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe; however, part of central Italy was under the control of the theocratic Papal States, while Southern Italy remained largely feudal until the 19th century, partially as a result of a succession of Byzantine, Arab, Norman, Angevin, Aragonese and other foreign conquests of the region.[25] The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy's commercial and political power significantly waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean.[26] Centuries of foreign meddling and conquest and the rivalry and infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left Italy politically fragmented, and it was further conquered and divided among multiple foreign European powers over the centuries. By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was almost entirely unified in 1861, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power.[27] From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy rapidly industrialised, mainly in the north, and acquired a colonial empire,[28] while the south remained largely impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora.[29] Despite being one of the four main allied powers in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of the Italian fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the Italian Resistance, the country abolished their monarchy, established a democratic Republic, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, and became a highly developed country.[30] Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries,[30][31][32] with the world's eighth-largest economy by nominal GDP (third in the European Union), sixth-largest national wealth and third-largest central bank gold reserve. It ranks very highly in life expectancy, quality of life,[33] healthcare,[34] and education. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs; it is both a regional power[35][36] and a great power,[37][38] and is ranked the world's eighth most-powerful military. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Seven, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more. The country has long been a global centre of art, music, literature, philosophy, science and technology, and fashion, and has greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields including cinema, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence, banking and business.[39] As a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to the world's largest number of World Heritage Sites (55), and is the fifth-most visited country. Contents 1 Name 2 History 2.1 Prehistory and antiquity 2.2 Phoenician and Greek colonization 2.3 Ancient Rome 2.4 Middle Ages 2.5 Early Modern 2.6 Italian unification 2.7 Monarchical period 2.8 Fascist regime 2.9 Republican Italy 3 Geography 3.1 Waters 3.2 Volcanology 3.3 Environment 3.4 Biodiversity 3.5 Climate 4 Politics 4.1 Government 4.2 Law and criminal justice 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military 4.5 Constituent entities 5 Economy 5.1 Agriculture 5.2 Infrastructure 5.3 Energy 5.4 Science and technology 5.5 Tourism 6 Demographics 6.1 Metropolitan cities and larger urban zone 6.2 Immigration 6.3 Languages 6.4 Religion 6.5 Education 6.6 Health 6.7 North-South gap 7 Culture 7.1 Architecture 7.2 Visual art 7.3 Literature 7.4 Philosophy 7.5 Theatre 7.6 Music 7.7 Cinema 7.8 Sport 7.9 Fashion and design 7.10 Cuisine 7.11 Public holidays and festivals 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links Name Main article: Name of Italy Evolution of Italy in ancient times Hypotheses for the etymology of the name "Italia" are numerous.[40] One is that it was borrowed via Greek from the Oscan Víteliú 'land of calves' (cf. Lat vitulus "calf", Umb vitlo "calf").[41] Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus,[42] mentioned also by Aristotle[43] and Thucydides.[44] According to Antiochus of Syracuse, the term Italy was used by the Greeks to initially refer only to the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula corresponding to the modern province of Reggio and part of the provinces of Catanzaro and Vibo Valentia in southern Italy. Nevertheless, by his time the larger concept of Oenotria and "Italy" had become synonymous and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. According to Strabo's Geographica, before the expansion of the Roman Republic, the name was used by Greeks to indicate the land between the strait of Messina and the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto, corresponding roughly to the current region of Calabria. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name "Italia" to a larger region[45] In addition to the "Greek Italy" in the south, historians have suggested the existence of an "Etruscan Italy" covering variable areas of central Italy.[46] The borders of Roman Italy, Italia, are better established. Cato's Origines, the first work of history composed in Latin, described Italy as the entire peninsula south of the Alps.[47] According to Cato and several Roman authors, the Alps formed the "walls of Italy".[48] In 264 BC, Roman Italy extended from the Arno and Rubicon rivers of the centre-north to the entire south. The northern area of Cisalpine Gaul was occupied by Rome in the 220s BC and became considered geographically and de facto part of Italy,[49] but remained politically and de jure separated. It was legally merged into the administrative unit of Italy in 42 BC by the triumvir Octavian as a ratification of Caesar's unpublished acts (Acta Caesaris).[50][51][52][53][54] The islands of Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily and Malta were added to Italy by Diocletian in 292 AD.[55] History Main article: History of Italy Prehistory and antiquity Main articles: Prehistoric Italy, Italic peoples, Etruscan civilisation, Magna Graecia, and Nuragic civilisation Etruscan fresco in the Monterozzi necropolis, 5th century BC The Sassi cave houses of Matera are among the first human settlements in Italy dating back to the Paleolithic.[56] Thousands of Paleolithic-era artifacts have been recovered from Monte Poggiolo and dated to around 850,000 years before the present, making them the oldest evidence of first hominins habitation in the peninsula.[57] Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period some 200,000 years ago,[58] while modern Humans appeared about 40,000 years ago at Riparo Mochi.[59] Archaeological sites from this period include Addaura cave, Altamura, Ceprano, and Gravina in Puglia.[60] The Ancient peoples of pre-Roman Italy – such as the Umbrians, the Latins (from which the Romans emerged), Volsci, Oscans, Samnites, Sabines, the Celts, the Ligures, the Veneti, the Iapygians and many others – were Indo-European peoples, most of them specifically of the Italic group. The main historic peoples of possible non-Indo-European or pre-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans of central and northern Italy, the Elymians and the Sicani in Sicily, and the prehistoric Sardinians, who gave birth to the Nuragic civilisation. Other ancient populations being of undetermined language families and of possible non-Indo-European origin include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings in Valcamonica, the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.[61] A well-preserved natural mummy known as Ötzi the Iceman, determined to be 5,000 years old (between 3400 and 3100 BCE, Copper Age), was discovered in the Similaun glacier of South Tyrol in 1991.[62] The first foreign colonizers were the Phoenicians, who initially established colonies and founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia. Some of these soon became small urban centres and were developed parallel to the Greek colonies; among the main centres there were the cities of Motya, Zyz (modern Palermo), Soluntum in Sicily and Nora, Sulci, and Tharros in Sardinia.[63] Between the 17th and the 11th centuries BC Mycenaean Greeks established contacts with Italy[64][65][66][67] and in the 8th and 7th centuries BC a number of Greek colonies were established all along the coast of Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, that became known as Magna Graecia. The Greek colonization placed the Italic peoples in contact with democratic government forms and with elevated artistic and cultural expressions.[68] The temple of Concordia in Agrigento Phoenician and Greek colonization See also: Colonies in antiquity The first foreign colonizers were the Phoenicians, who initially founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia. Some of these quickly become small urban centers and develop parallel to the Greek colonies; among the main centers are the cities of Mozia, Zyz, Kfra in Sicily and Nora, Sulci, Tharros in Sardinia.[69] After the eighth century BC, colonizers from Greece settled on the coasts of southern Italy giving life to Magna Graecia and those of Sicily. Ionian settlers founded Elaia, Kyme, Rhegion, Parthènope, Naxos, Zankles, Hymera and Katane. Doric colonists founded Taras, Syrakousai, Megara Hyblaia, Leontinoi, Akragas, Ghelas; the Syracusans founded Ankón and Adria; the megarese founded Selinunte. The Achaeans founded Sybaris, Poseidonia, Kroton, Lokroi Epizephyrioi and Metapontum; tarantini and thuriots found Herakleia. The Greek colonization places the Italic peoples in contact with democratic forms of government and with high artistic and cultural expressions.[70] Ancient Rome Main article: Ancient Rome Further information: Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic, and Roman Empire The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70–80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, 117 AD Rome, a settlement around a ford on the river Tiber in central Italy conventionally founded in 753 BC, was ruled for a period of 244 years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings. The tradition handed down seven kings: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius and Tarquinius Superbus. In 509 BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city, favouring a government of the Senate and the People (SPQR) and establishing an oligarchic republic. The Italian Peninsula, named Italia, was consolidated into a single entity during the Roman expansion and conquest of new lands at the expense of the other Italic tribes, Etruscans, Celts, and Greeks. A permanent association with most of the local tribes and cities was formed, and Rome began the conquest of Western Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East. In the wake of Julius Caesar's rise and death in the first century BC, Rome grew over the course of centuries into a massive empire stretching from Britain to the borders of Persia, and engulfing the whole Mediterranean basin, in which Greek and Roman and many other cultures merged into a unique civilisation. The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustus, began a golden age of peace and prosperity. Italy remained the metropole of the empire, and as the homeland of the Romans and the territory of the capital, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina (ruler) of the provinces".[71] More than two centuries of stability followed, during which Italy was referred to as the rectrix mundi (queen of the world) and omnium terrarum parens (motherland of all lands).[72] The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time, and it was one of the largest empires in world history. At its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres.[73][74] The Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world; among the many legacies of Roman dominance are the widespread use of the Romance languages derived from Latin, the numerical system, the modern Western alphabet and calendar, and the emergence of Christianity as a major world religion.[75] The Indo-Roman trade relations, beginning around the 1st century BCE, testifies to extensive Roman trade in far away regions; many reminders of the commercial trade between the Indian subcontinent and Italy have been found, such as the ivory statuette Pompeii Lakshmi from the ruins of Pompeii. In a slow decline since the third century AD, the Empire split in two in 395 AD. The Western Empire, under the pressure of the barbarian invasions, eventually dissolved in 476 AD when its last emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacer. The Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years. Middle Ages Main article: Italy in the Middle Ages See also: Barbarian kingdoms The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy fell under the power of Odoacer's kingdom, and, later, was seized by the Ostrogoths,[76] followed in the 6th century by a brief reconquest under Byzantine Emperor Justinian. The invasion of another Germanic tribe, the Lombards, late in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1,300 years. Invasions of the peninsula caused a chaotic succession of barbarian kingdoms and the so-called "dark ages". The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy. Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding with the former (Ghibellines) or with the latter (Guelphs) from momentary convenience.[77] Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans to Central Asia and China.[78] The Germanic Emperor and the Roman Pontiff became the universal powers of medieval Europe. However, the conflict for the investiture controversy (a conflict over two radically different views of whether secular authorities such as kings, counts, or dukes, had any legitimate role in appointments to ecclesiastical offices) and the clash between Guelphs and Ghibellines led to the end of the Imperial-feudal system in the north of Italy where city-states gained independence. It was during this chaotic era that Italian towns saw the rise of a peculiar institution, the medieval commune. Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy See, local communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order.[79] The investiture controversy was finally resolved by the Concordat of Worms. In 1176 a league of city-states, the Lombard League, defeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano, thus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities. A 14th century conflict between Guelph and Ghibelline factions as portrayed in the Nuova Cronica by Giovanni Villani Italian city-states such as Milan, Florence and Venice played a crucial innovative role in financial development, devising the main instruments and practices of banking and the emergence of new forms of social and economic organization.[80] In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to the Orient. They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire. All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power. Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracy, the relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.[81] The four best known maritime republics were Venice, Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi; the others were Ancona, Gaeta, Noli, and Ragusa.[82][83][84] Each of the maritime republics had dominion over different overseas lands, including many Mediterranean islands (especially Sardinia and Corsica), lands on the Adriatic, Aegean, and Black Sea (Crimea), and commercial colonies in the Near East and in North Africa. Venice maintained enormous tracts of land in Greece, Cyprus, Istria and Dalmatia until as late as the mid-17th century.[85] Map Left: Flag of the Italian Navy, displaying the coat of arms of Venice, Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi, the most prominent maritime republics. Right: Trade routes and colonies of the Genoese (red) and Venetian (green) empires. Venice and Genoa were Europe's main gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk, wool, banks and jewellery. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned. The republics were heavily involved in the Crusades, providing support and transport, but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars.[81] Italy first felt huge economic changes in Europe which led to the commercial revolution: the Republic of Venice was able to defeat the Byzantine Empire and finance the voyages of Marco Polo to Asia; the first universities were formed in Italian cities, and scholars such as Thomas Aquinas obtained international fame; Frederick of Sicily made Italy the political-cultural centre of a reign that temporarily included the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Jerusalem; capitalism and banking families emerged in Florence, where Dante and Giotto were active around 1300.[24] In the south, Sicily had become an Islamic emirate in the 9th century, thriving until the Italo-Normans conquered it in the late 11th century together with most of the Lombard and Byzantine principalities of southern Italy.[86] Through a complex series of events, southern Italy developed as a unified kingdom, first under the House of Hohenstaufen, then under the Capetian House of Anjou and, from the 15th century, the House of Aragon. In Sardinia, the former Byzantine provinces became independent states known in Italian as Judicates, although some parts of the island fell under Genoese or Pisan rule until the eventual Aragonese annexation in the 15th century. The Black Death pandemic of 1348 left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population.[87][88] However, the recovery from the plague led to a resurgence of cities, trade and economy which allowed the bloom of Humanism and Renaissance, that later spread to Europe. Early Modern Main articles: Italian Renaissance, Italian Wars, and History of Italy (1559–1814) The Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494 Italy was the birthplace and heart of the Renaissance during the 1400s and 1500s. The Italian Renaissance marked the transition from the medieval period to the modern age as Europe recovered, economically and culturally, from the crises of the Late Middle Ages and entered the Early Modern Period. The Italian polities were now regional states effectively ruled by Princes, de facto monarchs in control of trade and administration, and their courts became major centres of Arts and Sciences. The Italian princedoms represented a first form of modern states as opposed to feudal monarchies and multinational empires. The princedoms were led by political dynasties and merchant families such as the Medici in Florence, the Visconti and Sforza in the Duchy of Milan, the Doria in the Republic of Genoa, the Mocenigo and Barbarigo in the Republic of Venice, the Este in Ferrara, and the Gonzaga in Mantua.[89][90] The Renaissance was therefore a result of the great wealth accumulated by Italian merchant cities combined with the patronage of its dominant families.[89] Italian Renaissance exercised a dominant influence on subsequent European painting and sculpture for centuries afterwards, with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Michelangelo, Raphael, Giotto, Donatello, and Titian, and architects such as Filippo Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Donato Bramante. Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait (ca. 1512, Royal Library, Turin) Following the conclusion of the western schism in favour of Rome at the Council of Constance (1415–1417), the new Pope Martin V returned to the Papal States after a three years-long journey that touched many Italian cities and restored Italy as the sole centre of Western Christianity. During the course of this voyage, the Medici Bank was made the official credit institution of the Papacy and several significant ties were established between the Church and the new political dynasties of the peninsula. The Popes' status as elective monarchs turned the conclaves and consistories of the Renaissance into political battles between the courts of Italy for primacy in the peninsula and access to the immense resources of the Catholic Church. In 1439, Pope Eugenius IV and the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos signed a reconciliation agreement between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church at the Council of Florence hosted by Cosimo the old de Medici. In 1453, Italian forces under Giovanni Giustiniani were sent by Pope Nicholas V to defend the Walls of Constantinople but the decisive battle was lost to the more advanced Turkish army equipped with cannons, and Byzantium fell to Sultan Mehmed II. The fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, fueling the rediscovery of Greco-Roman Humanism.[91][92][93] Humanist rulers such as Federico da Montefeltro and Pope Pius II worked to establish ideal cities where man is the measure of all things, and therefore founded Urbino and Pienza respectively. Pico della Mirandola wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man, considered the manifesto of Renaissance Humanism, in which he stressed the importance of free will in human beings. The humanist historian Leonardo Bruni was the first to divide human history in three periods: Antiquity, Middle Ages and Modernity.[94] The second consequence of the Fall of Constantinople was the beginning of the Age of Discovery. Christopher Columbus leads an expedition to the New World, 1492. His voyages are celebrated as the discovery of the Americas from a European perspective, and they opened a new era in the history of humankind and sustained contact between the two worlds. Italian explorers and navigators from the dominant maritime republics, eager to find an alternative route to the Indies in order to bypass the Ottoman Empire, offered their services to monarchs of Atlantic countries and played a key role in ushering the Age of Discovery and the European colonization of the Americas. The most notable among them were: Christopher Columbus, colonizer in the name of Spain, who is credited with discovering the New World and the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement by Europeans;[95] John Cabot, sailing for England, who was the first European to set foot in "New Found Land" and explore parts of the North American continent in 1497;[96] Amerigo Vespucci, sailing for Portugal, who first demonstrated in about 1501 that the New World (in particular Brazil) was not Asia as initially conjectured, but a fourth continent previously unknown to people of the Old World (America is named after him);[97][98] and Giovanni da Verrazzano, at the service of France, renowned as the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between Florida and New Brunswick in 1524;[99] Following the fall of Constantinople, the wars in Lombardy came to an end and a defensive alliance known as Italic League was formed between Venice, Naples, Florence, Milan, and the Papacy. Lorenzo the Magnificent de Medici was the greatest Florentine patron of the Renaissance and supporter of the Italic League. He notably avoided the collapse of the League in the aftermath of the Pazzi Conspiracy and during the aborted invasion of Italy by the Turks. However, the military campaign of Charles VIII of France in Italy caused the end of the Italic League and initiated the Italian Wars between the Valois and the Habsburgs. During the High Renaissance of the 1500s, Italy was therefore both the main European battleground and the cultural-economic centre of the continent. Popes such as Julius II (1503–1513) fought for the control of Italy against foreign monarchs, others such as Paul III (1534–1549) preferred to mediate between the European powers in order to secure peace in Italy. In the middle of this conflict, the Medici popes Leo X (1513–1521) and Clement VII (1523–1534) opposed the Protestant reformation and advanced the interests of their family. The end of the wars ultimately left northern Italy indirectly subject to the Austrian Habsburgs and Southern Italy under direct Spanish Habsburg rule. The Papacy remained independent and launched the Counter-reformation. Key events of the period include: the Council of Trent (1545–1563); the excommunication of Elizabeth I (1570) and the Battle of Lepanto (1571), both occurring during the pontificate of Pius V; the construction of the Gregorian observatory, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and the Jesuit China mission of Matteo Ricci under Pope Gregory XIII; the French Wars of Religion; the Long Turkish War and the execution of Giordano Bruno in 1600, under Pope Clement VIII; the birth of the Lyncean Academy of the Papal States, of which the main figure was Galileo Galilei (later put on trial); the final phases of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) during the pontificates of Urban VIII and Innocent X; and the formation of the last Holy League by Innocent XI during the Great Turkish War The Italian economy declined during the 1600s and 1700s, as the peninsula was excluded from the rising Atlantic slave trade. Following the European wars of succession of the 18th century, the south passed to a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons and the North fell under the influence of the Habsburg-Lorraine of Austria. During the Coalition Wars, northern-central Italy was reorganised by Napoleon in a number of Sister Republics of France and later as a Kingdom of Italy in personal union with the French Empire.[100] The southern half of the peninsula was administered by Joachim Murat, Napoleon's brother-in-law, who was crowned as King of Naples. The 1814 Congress of Vienna restored the situation of the late 18th century, but the ideals of the French Revolution could not be eradicated, and soon re-surfaced during the political upheavals that characterised the first part of the 19th century. Italian unification Main article: Italian unification Giuseppe Mazzini (left), highly influential leader of the Italian revolutionary movement; and Giuseppe Garibaldi (right), celebrated as one of the greatest generals of modern times[101] and as the "Hero of the Two Worlds",[102] who commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led to Italian unification The birth of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. Following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the political and social Italian unification movement, or Risorgimento, emerged to unite Italy consolidating the different states of the peninsula and liberate it from foreign control. A prominent radical figure was the patriotic journalist Giuseppe Mazzini, member of the secret revolutionary society Carbonari and founder of the influential political movement Young Italy in the early 1830s, who favoured a unitary republic and advocated a broad nationalist movement. His prolific output of propaganda helped the unification movement stay active. Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871 The most famous member of Young Italy was the revolutionary and general Giuseppe Garibaldi, renowned for his extremely loyal followers,[103] who led the Italian republican drive for unification in Southern Italy. However, the Northern Italy monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Sardinia, whose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, also had ambitions of establishing a united Italian state. In the context of the 1848 liberal revolutions that swept through Europe, an unsuccessful first war of independence was declared on Austria. In 1855, the Kingdom of Sardinia became an ally of Britain and France in the Crimean War, giving Cavour's diplomacy legitimacy in the eyes of the great powers.[104][105] The Kingdom of Sardinia again attacked the Austrian Empire in the Second Italian War of Independence of 1859, with the aid of France, resulting in liberating Lombardy. In 1860–1861, Garibaldi led the drive for unification in Naples and Sicily (the Expedition of the Thousand),[106] while the House of Savoy troops occupied the central territories of the Italian peninsula, except Rome and part of Papal States. Teano was the site of the famous meeting of 26 October 1860 between Giuseppe Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II, last King of Sardinia, in which Garibaldi shook Victor Emanuel's hand and hailed him as King of Italy; thus, Garibaldi sacrificed republican hopes for the sake of Italian unity under a monarchy. Cavour agreed to include Garibaldi's Southern Italy allowing it to join the union with the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1860. This allowed the Sardinian government to declare a united Italian kingdom on 17 March 1861.[107] Victor Emmanuel II then became the first king of a united Italy, and the capital was moved from Turin to Florence. In 1866, Victor Emmanuel II allied with Prussia during the Austro-Prussian War, waging the Third Italian War of Independence which allowed Italy to annexe Venetia. Finally, in 1870, as France abandoned its garrisons in Rome during the disastrous Franco-Prussian War to keep the large Prussian Army at bay, the Italians rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the Papal States. Italian unification was completed and shortly afterwards Italy's capital was moved to Rome. Victor Emmanuel, Garibaldi, Cavour and Mazzini have been referred as Italy's Four Fathers of the Fatherland.[101] Monarchical period Main articles: Kingdom of Italy, Italian Empire, and Military history of Italy during World War I Victor Emmanuel II and Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, leading figures in the Italian unification, became respectively the 1st king and 1st Prime Minister of Italy. The new Kingdom of Italy obtained Great Power status. The Constitutional Law of the Kingdom of Sardinia the Albertine Statute of 1848, was extended to the whole Kingdom of Italy in 1861, and provided for basic freedoms of the new State, but electoral laws excluded the non-propertied and uneducated classes from voting. The government of the new kingdom took place in a framework of parliamentary constitutional monarchy dominated by liberal forces. As Northern Italy quickly industrialised, the South and rural areas of the North remained underdeveloped and overpopulated, forcing millions of people to migrate abroad and fuelling a large and influential diaspora. The Italian Socialist Party constantly increased in strength, challenging the traditional liberal and conservative establishment. The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, a national symbol of Italy celebrating the first king of the unified country, and resting place of the Unknown Soldier since the end of World War I Starting from the last two decades of the 19th century, Italy developed into a colonial power by forcing under its rule Eritrea and Somalia in East Africa, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica in North Africa (later unified in the colony of Libya) and the Dodecanese islands.[108] From 2 November 1899 to 7 September 1901, Italy also participated as part of the Eight-Nation Alliance forces during the Boxer Rebellion in China; on 7 September 1901, a concession in Tientsin was ceded to the country, and on 7 June 1902, the concession was taken into Italian possession and administered by a consul. In 1913, male universal suffrage was adopted. The pre-war period dominated by Giovanni Giolitti, Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921, was characterized by the economic, industrial and political-cultural modernization of Italian society. Italy, nominally allied with the German Empire and the Empire of Austria-Hungary in the Triple Alliance, in 1915 joined the Allies into World War I with a promise of substantial territorial gains, that included western Inner Carniola, former Austrian Littoral, Dalmatia as well as parts of the Ottoman Empire. The country gave a fundamental contribution to the victory of the conflict as one of the "Big Four" top Allied powers. The war was initially inconclusive, as the Italian army got stuck in a long attrition war in the Alps, making little progress and suffering very heavy losses. However, the reorganization of the army and the conscription of the so-called '99 Boys (Ragazzi del '99, all males born in 1899 who were turning 18) led to more effective Italian victories in major battles, such as on Monte Grappa and in a series of battles on the Piave river. Eventually, in October 1918, the Italians launched a massive offensive, culminating in the victory of Vittorio Veneto. The Italian victory[109][110][111] marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and was chiefly instrumental in ending the First World War less than two weeks later. During the war, more than 650,000 Italian soldiers and as many civilians died[112] and the kingdom went to the brink of bankruptcy. Under the Peace Treaties of Saint-Germain, Rapallo and Rome, Italy gained a permanent seat in the League of Nations's executive council and obtained most of the promised territories, but not Dalmatia (except Zara), allowing nationalists to define the victory as "mutilated". Moreover, Italy annexed the Hungarian harbour of Fiume, that was not part of territories promised at London but had been occupied after the end of the war by Gabriele D'Annunzio. Fascist regime Main articles: Italian Fascism, Fascist Italy (1922–1943), and Military history of Italy during World War II Benito Mussolini, Duce of Fascist Italy The socialist agitations that followed the devastation of the Great War, inspired by the Russian Revolution, led to counter-revolution and repression throughout Italy. The liberal establishment, fearing a Soviet-style revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Party, led by Benito Mussolini. In October 1922 the Blackshirts of the National Fascist Party attempted a coup named the "March on Rome" which failed but at the last minute, King Victor Emmanuel III refused to proclaim a state of siege and appointed Mussolini prime minister. Over the next few years, Mussolini banned all political parties and curtailed personal liberties, thus forming a dictatorship. These actions attracted international attention and eventually inspired similar dictatorships such as Nazi Germany and Francoist Spain. In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and founded the Italian East Africa, resulting in an international alienation and leading to Italy's withdrawal from the League of Nations; Italy allied with Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan and strongly supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish civil war. In 1939, Italy annexed Albania, a de facto protectorate for decades. Italy entered World War II on 10 June 1940. After initially advancing in British Somaliland, Egypt, the Balkans and eastern fronts, the Italians were defeated in East Africa, Soviet Union and North Africa. Map of the Italian Empire at its maximum extent, with colonies in light green and protectorates or occupied areas during World War II in grey The Armistice of Villa Giusti, which ended fighting between Italy and Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, resulted in Italian annexation of neighbouring parts of Yugoslavia. During the interwar period, the fascist Italian government undertook a campaign of Italianisation in the areas it annexed, which suppressed Slavic language, schools, political parties, and cultural institutions. During World War II, Italian war crimes included extrajudicial killings and ethnic cleansing[113] by deportation of about 25,000 people, mainly Jews, Croats, and Slovenians, to the Italian concentration camps, such as Rab, Gonars, Monigo, Renicci di Anghiari and elsewhere. In Italy and Yugoslavia, unlike in Germany, few war crimes were prosecuted.[114][115][116][117] Yugoslav Partisans perpetrated their own crimes during and after the war, including the foibe killings. Meanwhile, about 250,000 Italians and anti-communist Slavs fled to Italy in the Istrian exodus. An Allied invasion of Sicily began in July 1943, leading to the collapse of the Fascist regime and the fall of Mussolini on 25 July. Mussolini was deposed and arrested by order of King Victor Emmanuel III in co-operation with the majority of the members of the Grand Council of Fascism, which passed a motion of no confidence. On 8 September, Italy signed the Armistice of Cassibile, ending its war with the Allies. The Germans helped by the Italian fascists shortly succeeded in taking control of northern and central Italy. The country remained a battlefield for the rest of the war, as the Allies were slowly moving up from the south. In the north, the Germans set up the Italian Social Republic (RSI), a Nazi puppet state with Mussolini installed as leader after he was rescued by German paratroopers. Some Italian troops in the south were organized into the Italian Co-belligerent Army, which fought alongside the Allies for the rest of the war, while other Italian troops, loyal to Mussolini and his RSI, continued to fight alongside the Germans in the National Republican Army. As result, the country descended into civil war. Also, the post-armistice period saw the rise of a large anti-fascist resistance movement, the Resistenza, which fought a guerilla war against the German and RSI forces. In late April 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape north,[118] but was captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Italian partisans. His body was then taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.[119] Hostilities ended on 29 April 1945, when the German forces in Italy surrendered. Nearly half a million Italians (including civilians) died in the conflict,[120] and the Italian economy had been all but destroyed; per capita income in 1944 was at its lowest point since the beginning of the 20th century.[121] Republican Italy Main article: History of the Italian Republic Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union Italy became a republic after a referendum[122] held on 2 June 1946, a day celebrated since as Republic Day. This was also the first time that Italian women were entitled to vote.[123] Victor Emmanuel III's son, Umberto II, was forced to abdicate and exiled. The Republican Constitution was approved on 1 January 1948. Under the Treaty of Peace with Italy of 1947, most of the Julian March was lost to Yugoslavia and, later, the Free Territory of Trieste was divided between the two states. Italy also lost all of its colonial possessions, formally ending the Italian Empire. In 1950, Italian Somaliland was made a United Nations Trust Territory under Italian administration until 1 July 1960. The Italian border that applies today has existed since 1975, when Trieste was formally annexed to Italy. Fears of a possible Communist takeover (especially in the United States) proved crucial for the first universal suffrage electoral outcome on 18 April 1948, when the Christian Democrats, under the leadership of Alcide De Gasperi, obtained a landslide victory.[124][125] Consequently, in 1949 Italy became a member of NATO. The Marshall Plan helped to revive the Italian economy which, until the late 1960s, enjoyed a period of sustained economic growth commonly called the "Economic Miracle". In 1957, Italy was a founding member of the European Economic Community (EEC), which became the European Union (EU) in 1993. The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the European Economic Community, forerunner of the present-day European Union. Italy is a founding member of all EU institutions. From the late 1960s until the early 1980s, the country experienced the Years of Lead, a period characterised by economic crisis (especially after the 1973 oil crisis), widespread social conflicts and terrorist massacres carried out by opposing extremist groups, with the alleged involvement of US and Soviet intelligence.[126][127][128] The Years of Lead culminated in the assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro in 1978 and the Bologna railway station massacre in 1980, where 85 people died. In the 1980s, for the first time since 1945, two governments were led by non-Christian-Democrat premiers: one republican (Giovanni Spadolini) and one socialist (Bettino Craxi); the Christian Democrats remained, however, the main government party. During Craxi's government, the economy recovered and Italy became the world's fifth-largest industrial nation after it gained the entry into the Group of Seven in the 1970s. However, as a result of his spending policies, the Italian national debt skyrocketed during the Craxi era, soon passing 100% of the country's GDP. Italy faced several terror attacks between 1992 and 1993 perpetrated by the Sicilian Mafia as a consequence of several life sentences pronounced during the "Maxi Trial", and of the new anti-mafia measures launched by the government. In 1992, two major dynamite attacks killed the judges Giovanni Falcone (23 May in the Capaci bombing) and Paolo Borsellino (19 July in the Via D'Amelio bombing).[129] One year later (May–July 1993), tourist spots were attacked, such as the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, Via Palestro in Milan, and the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome, leaving 10 dead and 93 injured and causing severe damage to cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. The Catholic Church openly condemned the Mafia, and two churches were bombed and an anti-Mafia priest shot dead in Rome.[130][131][132] Also in the early 1990s, Italy faced significant challenges, as voters – disenchanted with political paralysis, massive public debt and the extensive corruption system (known as Tangentopoli) uncovered by the Clean Hands (Mani Pulite) investigation – demanded radical reforms. The scandals involved all major parties, but especially those in the government coalition: the Christian Democrats, who ruled for almost 50 years, underwent a severe crisis and eventually disbanded, splitting up into several factions.[133] The Communists reorganised as a social-democratic force. During the 1990s and the 2000s, centre-right (dominated by media magnate Silvio Berlusconi) and centre-left coalitions (led by university professor Romano Prodi) alternately governed the country. Amidst the Great Recession, Berlusconi resigned in 2011, and his conservative government was replaced by the technocratic cabinet of Mario Monti.[134] Following the 2013 general election, the Vice-Secretary of the Democratic Party Enrico Letta formed a new government at the head of a right-left Grand coalition. In 2014, challenged by the new Secretary of the PD Matteo Renzi, Letta resigned and was replaced by Renzi. The new government started important constitutional reforms such as the abolition of the Senate and a new electoral law. On 4 December the constitutional reform was rejected in a referendum and Renzi resigned; the Foreign Affairs Minister Paolo Gentiloni was appointed new Prime Minister.[135] President Sergio Mattarella at the Altar of the Fatherland, wearing a protection mask during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the European migrant crisis of the 2010s, Italy was the entry point and leading destination for most asylum seekers entering the EU. From 2013 to 2018, the country took in over 700,000 migrants and refugees,[136] mainly from sub-Saharan Africa,[137] which caused great strain on the public purse and a surge in the support for far-right or eurosceptic political parties.[138][139] The 2018 general election was characterized by a strong showing of the Five Star Movement and the League and the university professor Giuseppe Conte became the Prime Minister at the head of a populist coalition between these two parties.[140] However, after only fourteen months the League withdrew its support to Conte, who formed a new unprecedented government coalition between the Five Star Movement and the centre-left.[141][142] In 2020, Italy was severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic.[143] From March to May, Conte's government imposed a national lockdown as a measure to limit the spread of the disease,[144][145] while further restrictions were introduced during the following winter.[146] The measures, despite being widely approved by the public opinion,[147] were also described as the largest suppression of constitutional rights in the history of the republic.[148][149] With more than 90,000 confirmed victims, Italy was one of the countries with the highest total number of deaths in the worldwide coronavirus pandemic.[150] The pandemic caused also a severe economic disruption, in which Italy resulted as one of the most affected countries.[151] In February 2021, after a government crisis within his majority, Conte was forced to resign and Mario Draghi, former president of the European Central Bank, formed a new national unity government supported by almost all the main parties.[152] Geography Main article: Geography of Italy Topographic map of Italy Italy is located in Southern Europe (it is also considered a part of western Europe)[19] between latitudes 35° and 47° N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E. To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia and is roughly delimited by the Alpine watershed, enclosing the Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia (the two biggest islands of the Mediterranean), in addition to many smaller islands. The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy,[153][154] while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland.[155] The country's total area is 301,230 square kilometres (116,306 sq mi), of which 294,020 km2 (113,522 sq mi) is land and 7,210 km2 (2,784 sq mi) is water.[156] Including the islands, Italy has a coastline and border of 7,600 kilometres (4,722 miles) on the Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian seas (740 km (460 mi)), and borders shared with France (488 km (303 mi)), Austria (430 km (267 mi)), Slovenia (232 km (144 mi)) and Switzerland (740 km (460 mi)). San Marino (39 km (24 mi)) and Vatican City (3.2 km (2.0 mi)), both enclaves, account for the remainder.[156] Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) in Aosta Valley, the highest point in the European Union Appennine landscape in Marche Over 35% of the Italian territory is mountainous.[157] The Apennine Mountains form the peninsula's backbone, and the Alps form most of its northern boundary, where Italy's highest point is located on Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) (4,810 m or 15,780 ft).[note 1] Other worldwide-known mountains in Italy include the Matterhorn (Monte Cervino), Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso in the West Alps, and Bernina, Stelvio and Dolomites along the eastern side. The Po, Italy's longest river (652 kilometres or 405 miles), flows from the Alps on the western border with France and crosses the Padan plain on its way to the Adriatic Sea. The Po Valley is the largest plain in Italy, with 46,000 km2 (18,000 sq mi), and it represents over 70% of the total plain area in the country.[157] Many elements of the Italian territory are of volcanic origin. Most of the small islands and archipelagos in the south, like Capraia, Ponza, Ischia, Eolie, Ustica and Pantelleria are volcanic islands. There are also active volcanoes: Mount Etna in Sicily (the largest active volcano in Europe), Vulcano, Stromboli, and Vesuvius (the only active volcano on mainland Europe). The five largest lakes are, in order of diminishing size:[158] Garda (367.94 km2 or 142 sq mi), Maggiore (212.51 km2 or 82 sq mi, whose minor northern part is Switzerland), Como (145.9 km2 or 56 sq mi), Trasimeno (124.29 km2 or 48 sq mi) and Bolsena (113.55 km2 or 44 sq mi). Although the country includes the Italian peninsula, adjacent islands, and most of the southern Alpine basin, some of Italy's territory extends beyond the Alpine basin and some islands are located outside the Eurasian continental shelf. These territories are the comuni of: Livigno, Sexten, Innichen, Toblach (in part), Chiusaforte, Tarvisio, Graun im Vinschgau (in part), which are all part of the Danube's drainage basin, while the Val di Lei constitutes part of the Rhine's basin and the islands of Lampedusa and Lampione are on the African continental shelf. Waters See also: List of rivers of Italy and List of lakes of Italy Cinque Terre on the Italian Riviera Flamingos in the delta of the Po river Four different seas surround the Italian Peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea from three sides: the Adriatic Sea in the east,[159] the Ionian Sea in the south,[160] and the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the west.[161] Including islands, Italy has a coastline of 7,900 km.[162][163][164] Italian coasts include the Amalfi Coast, Cilentan Coast, Coast of the Gods, Costa Verde, Riviera delle Palme, Riviera del Brenta, Costa Smeralda and Trabocchi Coast. The Italian Riviera includes nearly all of the coastline of Liguria, extending from the border with France near Ventimiglia eastwards to Capo Corvo, which marks the eastern end of the Gulf of La Spezia.[165][166] The Apennines run along the entire length of the peninsula, dividing the waters into two opposite sides. On the other hand, the rivers are numerous due to the relative abundance of rains and to the presence of the Alpine chain in northern Italy with snowfields and glaciers. The fundamental watershed follows the ridge of the Alps and the Apennines and delimits five main slopes, corresponding to the seas into which the rivers flow: the Adriatic, Ionic, Tyrrhenian, Ligurian and Mediterranean sides.[167] Taking into consideration their origin, the Italian rivers can be divided into two main groups: the Alpine-Po rivers and the Apennine-island rivers.[167] Most of the rivers of Italy drain either into the Adriatic Sea, such as the Po, Piave, Adige, Brenta, Tagliamento, and Reno, or into the Tyrrhenian, like the Arno, Tiber and Volturno. The waters from some border municipalities (Livigno in Lombardy, Innichen and Sexten in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol) drain into the Black Sea through the basin of the Drava, a tributary of the Danube, and the waters from the Lago di Lei in Lombardy drain into the North Sea through the basin of the Rhine.[168] Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands The longest Italian river is Po, which flows either 652 km (405 mi) or 682 km (424 mi) (considering the length of the right bank tributary Maira) and whose headwaters are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po under the northwest face of Monviso. The vast valley around the Po is called Po Valley (Italian: Pianura Padana or Val Padana) the main industrial area of the country; in 2002, more than 16 million people lived there, at the time nearly ⅓ of the population of Italy.[169] The second longest Italian river is Adige, which originates near Lake Resia and flows into the Adriatic Sea, after having made a north–south route, near Chioggia.[170] In the north of the country are a number of large subalpine moraine-dammed lakes, commonly referred to as the Italian Lakes. There are more than 1000 lakes in Italy,[171] the largest of which is Garda (370 km2 or 143 sq mi). Other well-known subalpine lakes are Lake Maggiore (212.5 km2 or 82 sq mi), whose most northerly section is part of Switzerland, Como (146 km2 or 56 sq mi), one of the deepest lakes in Europe, Orta, Lugano, Iseo, and Idro.[172] Other notable lakes in the Italian peninsula are Trasimeno, Bolsena, Bracciano, Vico, Varano and Lesina in Gargano and Omodeo in Sardinia.[173] Along the Italian coasts there are lagoons, including the Venice, Grado Lagoon and Marano lagoons in northern Adriatic, and the Orbetello lagoon on the Tuscan coast. The swamps and ponds that in the past covered vast flat areas of Italy, have largely been dried up in recent centuries;[171] the few remaining wetlands, such as the Comacchio Valleys in Emilia-Romagna or the Stagno di Cagliari in Sardinia, are protected natural environments.[171] Volcanology See also: Volcanology of Italy Mount Etna, one of the world's most active volcanoes Mount Vesuvius, one of the world's most densely-populated volcanoes The country is situated at the meeting point of the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, leading to considerable seismic and volcanic activity. There are 14 volcanoes in Italy, four of which are active: Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano and Vesuvius. The last is the only active volcano in mainland Europe and is most famous for the destruction of Pompeii and Herculanum in the eruption in 79 AD. Several islands and hills have been created by volcanic activity, and there is still a large active caldera, the Campi Flegrei north-west of Naples. The high volcanic and magmatic neogenic activity is subdivided into provinces: Magmatic Tuscan (Monti Cimini, Tolfa and Amiata);[174][175] Magmatic Latium (Monti Volsini, Vico nel Lazio, Colli Albani, Roccamonfina);[175][176] Ultra-alkaline Umbrian Latium District (San Venanzo, Cupaello and Polino);[175][176] Volcanic bell (Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, Ischia);[175][176] Windy arch and Tyrrhenian basin (Aeolian Islands and Tyrrhenian seamounts);[175][176] African-Adriatic Avampa (Channel of Sicily, Graham Island, Etna and Mount Vulture).[175][176] Italy was the first country to exploit geothermal energy to produce electricity.[177] The high geothermal gradient that forms part of the peninsula makes potentially exploitable also other provinces: research carried out in the 1960s and 1970s identifies potential geothermal fields in Lazio and Tuscany, as well as in most volcanic islands.[177] Environment See also: List of national parks of Italy and List of regional parks of Italy National and regional parks in Italy After its quick industrial growth, Italy took a long time to confront its environmental problems. After several improvements, it now ranks 84th in the world for ecological sustainability.[178] National parks cover about 5% of the country.[179] In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world's leading producers of renewable energy, ranking as the world's fourth largest holder of installed solar energy capacity[180][181] and the sixth largest holder of wind power capacity in 2010.[182] Renewable energies now make up about 12% of the total primary and final energy consumption in Italy, with a future target share set at 17% for the year 2020.[183] However, air pollution remains a severe problem, especially in the industrialised north, reaching the tenth highest level worldwide of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in the 1990s.[184] Italy is the twelfth largest carbon dioxide producer.[185][186] Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national park. Extensive traffic and congestion in the largest metropolitan areas continue to cause severe environmental and health issues, even if smog levels have decreased dramatically since the 1970s and 1980s, and the presence of smog is becoming an increasingly rarer phenomenon and levels of sulphur dioxide are decreasing.[187] Many watercourses and coastal stretches have also been contaminated by industrial and agricultural activity, while because of rising water levels, Venice has been regularly flooded throughout recent years. Waste from industrial activity is not always disposed of by legal means and has led to permanent health effects on inhabitants of affected areas, as in the case of the Seveso disaster. The country has also operated several nuclear reactors between 1963 and 1990 but, after the Chernobyl disaster and a referendum on the issue the nuclear programme was terminated, a decision that was overturned by the government in 2008, planning to build up to four nuclear power plants with French technology. This was in turn struck down by a referendum following the Fukushima nuclear accident.[188] Deforestation, illegal building developments and poor land-management policies have led to significant erosion all over Italy's mountainous regions, leading to major ecological disasters like the 1963 Vajont Dam flood, the 1998 Sarno[189] and 2009 Messina mudslides. The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.65/10, ranking it 142nd globally out of 172 countries.[190] Biodiversity Main articles: Fauna of Italy and Flora of Italy The Italian wolf, which inhabits the Apennines and Western Alps, features prominently in Latin and Italian cultures, such as in the legend of the founding of Rome.[191] Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna.[192] Italy's varied geological structure contributes to its high climate and habitat diversity. The Italian peninsula is in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, forming a corridor between central Europe and North Africa, and has 8,000 km (5,000 mi) of coastline. Italy also receives species from the Balkans, Eurasia, the Middle East. Italy's varied geological structure, including the Alps and the Apennines, Central Italian woodlands, and Southern Italian Garigue and Maquis shrubland, also contributes to high climate and habitat diversity. Italian fauna includes 4,777 endemic animal species, which include the Sardinian long-eared bat, Sardinian red deer, spectacled salamander, brown cave salamander, Italian newt, Italian frog, Apennine yellow-bellied toad, Aeolian wall lizard, Sicilian wall lizard, Italian Aesculapian snake, and Sicilian pond turtle. There are 102 mammals species (most notably the Italian wolf, Marsican brown bear, Pyrenean chamois, Alpine ibex, crested porcupine, Mediterranean monk seal, Alpine marmot, Etruscan shrew, and European snow vole), 516 bird species and 56,213 invertebrate species. The flora of Italy was traditionally estimated to comprise about 5,500 vascular plant species.[193] However, as of 2005, 6,759 species are recorded in the Data bank of Italian vascular flora.[194] Italy is a signatory to the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats and the Habitats Directive both affording protection to Italian fauna and flora. Climate Main article: Climate of Italy See also: List of rivers of Italy and List of lakes of Italy Köppen-Geiger climate classification map of Italy[195] Southern Italy has a Mediterranean climate (Levanzo island pictured). Because of the great longitudinal extension of the peninsula and the mostly mountainous internal conformation, the climate of Italy is highly diverse. In most of the inland northern and central regions, the climate ranges from humid subtropical to humid continental and oceanic. In particular, the climate of the Po valley geographical region is mostly continental, with harsh winters and hot summers.[196][197] The coastal areas of Liguria, Tuscany and most of the South generally fit the Mediterranean climate stereotype (Köppen climate classification Csa). Conditions on peninsular coastal areas can be very different from the interior's higher ground and valleys, particularly during the winter months when the higher altitudes tend to be cold, wet, and often snowy. The coastal regions have mild winters and warm and generally dry summers, although lowland valleys can be quite hot in summer. Average winter temperatures vary from 0 °C (32 °F) on the Alps to 12 °C (54 °F) in Sicily, so average summer temperatures range from 20 °C (68 °F) to over 25 °C (77 °F). Winters can vary widely across the country with lingering cold, foggy and snowy periods in the north and milder, sunnier conditions in the south. Summers can be hot and humid across the country, particularly in the south while northern and central areas can experience occasional strong thunderstorms from spring to autumn.[198] Politics Main article: Politics of Italy Italy has been a unitary parliamentary republic since 2 June 1946, when the monarchy was abolished by a constitutional referendum. The President of Italy (Presidente della Repubblica), currently Sergio Mattarella since 2015, is Italy's head of state. The President is elected for a single seven years mand

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  32. Germany (German: Deutschland, German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic of Germany,[e][f] is a country at the intersection of Central and Western Europe. It is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; covering an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of over 83 million within its 16 constituent states. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. Germany is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city is Berlin, and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD 100. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the semi-presidential Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, World War II, and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Germany was divied into: the Federal Republic of Germany, generally known as West Germany, and the German Democratic Republic, East Germany. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community and the European Union, while the German Democratic Republic was a communist Eastern Bloc state and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the fall of communism, German reunification saw the former East German states join the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990—becoming a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor. Germany is a great power with a strong economy; it has the largest economy in Europe, the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial, scientific and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. As a developed country, which ranks very high on the Human Development Index, it offers social security and a universal health care system, environmental protections, and a tuition-free university education. Germany is also a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. It also has the fourth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire 2.2 East Francia and Holy Roman Empire 2.3 German Confederation and Empire 2.4 Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany 2.5 East and West Germany 2.6 Reunified Germany and the European Union 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity 4 Politics 4.1 Constituent states 4.2 Law 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military 5 Economy 5.1 Infrastructure 5.2 Tourism 6 Demographics 6.1 Religion 6.2 Languages 6.3 Education 6.4 Health 7 Culture 7.1 Music 7.2 Art and design 7.3 Literature and philosophy 7.4 Media 7.5 Cuisine 7.6 Sports 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links Etymology Further information: Names of Germany, Germani, and Germania The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.[11] The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "of the people" (from diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "of the people" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons also originates.[12] History Main article: History of Germany Ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago.[13] The first non-modern human fossil (the Neanderthal) was discovered in the Neander Valley.[14] Similarly dated evidence of modern humans has been found in the Swabian Jura, including 42,000-year-old flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found,[15] the 40,000-year-old Lion Man,[16] and the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels.[17] The Nebra sky disk, created during the European Bronze Age, is attributed to a German site.[18] Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire Main articles: Germania, Migration Period, and Frankish Realm The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[19] From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east, and west, coming into contact with the Celtic, Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes.[20] The Kingdom of East Francia in 843 Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania. In 9 AD, three Roman legions were defeated by Arminius.[21] By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of modern Germany. However, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hesse and the western Rhineland had been incorporated into Roman provinces.[22][23][24] Around 260, Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands.[25] After the invasion of the Huns in 375, and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes moved farther southwest: the Franks established the Frankish Kingdom and pushed east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria, and areas of what is today eastern Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes.[22] East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Main articles: East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne founded the Carolingian Empire in 800; it was divided in 843[26] and the Holy Roman Empire emerged from the eastern portion. The territory initially known as East Francia stretched from the Rhine in the west to the Elbe River in the east and from the North Sea to the Alps.[26] The Ottonian rulers (919–1024) consolidated several major duchies.[27] In 996 Gregory V became the first German Pope, appointed by his cousin Otto III, whom he shortly after crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the Salian emperors (1024–1125), although the emperors lost power through the Investiture controversy.[28] Under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), German princes encouraged German settlement to the south and east (Ostsiedlung). Members of the Hanseatic League, mostly north German towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.[29] Population declined starting with the Great Famine in 1315, followed by the Black Death of 1348–50.[30] The Golden Bull issued in 1356 provided the constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors.[31] Martin Luther (1483–1546), Protestant Reformer Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, laying the basis for the democratization of knowledge.[32] In 1517, Martin Luther incited the Protestant Reformation; the 1555 Peace of Augsburg tolerated the "Evangelical" faith (Lutheranism), but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects (cuius regio, eius religio).[33] From the Cologne War through the Thirty Years' Wars (1618–1648), religious conflict devastated German lands and significantly reduced the population.[34][35] The Peace of Westphalia ended religious warfare among the Imperial Estates;[34] their mostly German-speaking rulers were able to choose Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, or the Reformed faith as their official religion.[36] The legal system initiated by a series of Imperial Reforms (approximately 1495–1555) provided for considerable local autonomy and a stronger Imperial Diet.[37] The House of Habsburg held the imperial crown from 1438 until the death of Charles VI in 1740. Following the War of Austrian Succession and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Charles VI's daughter Maria Theresa ruled as Empress Consort when her husband, Francis I, became Emperor.[38][39] From 1740, dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated German history. In 1772, 1793, and 1795, Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire, agreed to the Partitions of Poland.[40][41] During the period of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic era and the subsequent final meeting of the Imperial Diet, most of the Free Imperial Cities were annexed by dynastic territories; the ecclesiastical territories were secularised and annexed. In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs (Austria) competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars.[42] German Confederation and Empire Main articles: German Question, German Confederation, Unification of Germany, German Empire, and German Colonial Empire The German Confederation in 1815 Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna founded the German Confederation, a loose league of 39 sovereign states. The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president reflected the Congress's rejection of Prussia's rising influence. Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich.[43][44] The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity.[45] In light of revolutionary movements in Europe, intellectuals and commoners started the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, raising the German Question. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, a temporary setback for the movement.[46] King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck as the Minister President of Prussia in 1862. Bismarck successfully concluded the war with Denmark in 1864; the subsequent decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation which excluded Austria. After the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in 1871. Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the King of Prussia ruled as its Kaiser, and Berlin became its capital.[47][48] In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany, Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances and avoiding war.[48] However, under Wilhelm II, Germany took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries.[49] A dual alliance was created with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary; the Triple Alliance of 1882 included Italy. Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances to protect against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.[50] At the Berlin Conference in 1884, Germany claimed several colonies including German East Africa, German South West Africa, Togoland, and Kamerun.[51] Later, Germany further expanded its colonial empire to include holdings in the Pacific and China.[52] The colonial government in South West Africa (present-day Namibia), from 1904 to 1907, carried out the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples as punishment for an uprising;[53][54] this was the 20th century's first genocide.[54] The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 provided the pretext for Austria-Hungary to attack Serbia and trigger World War I. After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed,[55] a general armistice ended the fighting. In the German Revolution (November 1918), Emperor Wilhelm II and the ruling princes abdicated their positions and Germany was declared a federal republic. Germany's new leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, accepting defeat by the Allies. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating, which was seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.[56] Germany lost around 13% of its European territory and ceded all of its colonial possessions in Africa and the South Sea.[57] Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany On 11 August 1919, President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution.[58] In the subsequent struggle for power, communists seized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements elsewhere attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch. Street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops, and a period of hyperinflation followed. A debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in 1924 ushered in the Golden Twenties, an era of artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.[59][60][61] Adolf Hitler, dictator of Nazi Germany (1933–1945) The worldwide Great Depression hit Germany in 1929. Chancellor Heinrich Brüning's government pursued a policy of fiscal austerity and deflation which caused unemployment of nearly 30% by 1932.[62] The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won a special election in 1932 and Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933.[63] After the Reichstag fire, a decree abrogated basic civil rights and the first Nazi concentration camp opened.[64][65] The Enabling Act gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power, overriding the constitution;[66] his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations, and dramatically increased the country's rearmament.[67] A government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works, the most famous of which was the autobahn.[68] In 1935, the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.[69] Germany also reacquired control of the Saarland in 1935,[70] remilitarised the Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich Agreement, and in violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia in March 1939.[71] Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) saw the burning of synagogues, the destruction of Jewish businesses, and mass arrests of Jewish people.[72] German-occupied Europe in 1942 during World War II In August 1939, Hitler's government negotiated the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.[73] On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, beginning World War II in Europe;[74] Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September.[75] In the spring of 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, forcing the French government to sign an armistice. The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. In 1941, German troops invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union. By 1942, Germany and her allies controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa, but following the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in 1943, German forces suffered repeated military defeats. In 1944, the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe; the Western allies landed in France and entered Germany despite a final German counteroffensive. Following Hitler's suicide during the Battle of Berlin, Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.[74][76] Following the end of the war, surviving Nazi officials were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.[77][78] In what later became known as the Holocaust, the German government persecuted minorities, including interning them in concentration and death camps across Europe. In total 17 million people were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, at least 130,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of political and religious opponents.[79] Nazi policies in German-occupied countries resulted in the deaths of an estimated 2.7 million Poles,[80] 1.3 million Ukrainians, 1 million Belarusians and 3.5 million Soviet prisoners of war.[81][77] German military casualties have been estimated at 5.3 million,[82] and around 900,000 German civilians died.[83] Around 12 million ethnic Germans were expelled from across Eastern Europe, and Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory.[84] East and West Germany Main article: History of Germany (1945–1990) American, Soviet, British, and French occupation zones in Germany and the French-controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line were transferred to Poland and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Conference.[85] After Nazi Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four occupation zones. The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik; DDR). They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany.[86] East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was temporary.[87] West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy". Starting in 1948 West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan.[88] Konrad Adenauer was elected the first Federal Chancellor of Germany in 1949. The country enjoyed prolonged economic growth (Wirtschaftswunder) beginning in the early 1950s.[89] West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community.[90] East Germany was an Eastern Bloc state under political and military control by the USSR via occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact. Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany, supported by the Stasi, an immense secret service.[91] While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity.[92] The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, prevented East German citizens from escaping to West Germany, becoming a symbol of the Cold War.[93] Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the late 1960s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik.[94] In 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open its border with Austria, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary and Austria. This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. In an effort to help retain East Germany as a state, the East German authorities eased border restrictions, but this actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process culminating in the Two Plus Four Treaty under which Germany regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990, with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.[95] The fall of the Wall in 1989 became a symbol of the Fall of Communism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, German Reunification and Die Wende.[96] Reunified Germany and the European Union Main articles: German reunification and History of Germany since 1990 The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate in the background United Germany was considered the enlarged continuation of West Germany so it retained its memberships in international organisations.[97] Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act (1994), Berlin again became the capital of Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries.[98] The relocation of the government was completed in 1999, and modernisation of the east German economy was scheduled to last until 2019.[99][100] Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union, signing the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2007,[101] and co-founding the Eurozone.[102] Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban.[103][104] In the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor. In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion stimulus plan.[105] Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0.[106] Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015: the country took in over a million migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states.[107] Geography Main article: Geography of Germany Physical map of Germany Germany is in Western and Central Europe, bordering Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, and Switzerland to the south-southwest. France, Luxembourg and Belgium are situated to the west, with the Netherlands to the northwest. Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. German territory covers 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 348,672 km2 (134,623 sq mi) of land and 8,350 km2 (3,224 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh-largest country in Europe, and the 62nd-largest country in the world.[4] Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,963 metres or 9,721 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: in the municipality Neuendorf-Sachsenbande, Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level[108]) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, and nickel.[4] Climate Most of Germany has a temperate climate, ranging from oceanic in the north to continental in the east and southeast. Winters range from cold in the southern Alps to mild and are generally overcast with limited precipitation, while summers can vary from hot and dry to cool and rainy. The northern regions have prevailing westerly winds that bring in moist air from the North Sea, moderating the temperature and increasing precipitation. Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures.[109] From February 2019 – 2020, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F) in January 2020 to a high of 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) in June 2019.[110] Average monthly precipitation ranged from 30 litres per square metre in February and April 2019 to 125 litres per square metre in February 2020.[111] Average monthly hours of sunshine ranged from 45 in November 2019 to 300 in June 2019.[112] The highest temperature ever recorded in Germany was 42.6 °C on 25 July 2019 in Lingen and the lowest was −37.8 °C on 12 February 1929 in Wolnzach.[113][114] Biodiversity Berchtesgaden National Park The territory of Germany can be divided into five terrestrial ecoregions: Atlantic mixed forests, Baltic mixed forests, Central European mixed forests, Western European broadleaf forests, and Alps conifer and mixed forests.[115] As of 2016 51% of Germany's land area is devoted to agriculture, while 30% is forested and 14% is covered by settlements or infrastructure.[116] Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. According to the National Forest Inventory, beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute just over 40% of the forests; roughly 60% are conifers, particularly spruce and pine.[117] There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.[118] The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol.[119] The 16 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park.[120] In addition, there are 17 Biosphere Reserves[121] and 105 nature parks.[122] More than 400 zoos and animal parks operate in Germany.[123] The Berlin Zoo, which opened in 1844, is the oldest in Germany, and claims the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.[124] Politics Main articles: Politics of Germany, Taxation in Germany, and Federal budget of Germany Frank-Walter Steinmeier - 2018 (cropped).jpg Angela Merkel 2019 (cropped).jpg Frank-Walter Steinmeier President Angela Merkel Chancellor Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. The Bundestag is elected through direct elections using the mixed-member proportional representation system. The members of the Bundesrat represent and are appointed by the governments of the sixteen federated states.[4] The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law, are valid in perpetuity.[125] The president, currently Frank-Walter Steinmeier, is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.[4] The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (president of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.[126] The third-highest official and the head of government is the chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the party or coalition with the most seats in the Bundestag.[4] The chancellor, currently Angela Merkel, is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet.[4] Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party and the Alliance '90/The Greens have also been junior partners in coalition governments. Since 2007, the left-wing populist party The Left has been a staple in the German Bundestag, though they have never been part of the federal government. In the 2017 German federal election, the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.[127][128] Constituent states Main articles: States of Germany and Federalism in Germany Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer.[129] Each state has its own state constitution,[130] and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. As of 2017 Germany is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts.[131] Lower Saxony Lower SaxonyFree Hanseatic City of Bremen BremenHamburg HamburgMecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg- VorpommernSaxony-Anhalt Saxony- AnhaltSaxony SaxonyBrandenburg BrandenburgBerlin BerlinThuringia ThuringiaHesse HesseNorth Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine- WestphaliaRhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-PalatinateBavaria BavariaBaden-Württemberg Baden- WürttembergSaarland SaarlandSchleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein State Capital Area (km2)[132] Population (2018)[133] Nominal GDP billions EUR (2015)[134] Nominal GDP per capita EUR (2015)[134] Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart 35,751 11,069,533 461 42,800 Bavaria Munich 70,550 13,076,721 550 43,100 Berlin Berlin 892 3,644,826 125 35,700 Brandenburg Potsdam 29,654 2,511,917 66 26,500 Bremen Bremen 420 682,986 32 47,600 Hamburg Hamburg 755 1,841,179 110 61,800 Hesse Wiesbaden 21,115 6,265,809 264 43,100 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin 23,214 1,609,675 40 25,000 Lower Saxony Hanover 47,593 7,982,448 259 32,900 North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf 34,113 17,932,651 646 36,500 Rhineland-Palatinate Mainz 19,854 4,084,844 132 32,800 Saarland Saarbrücken 2,569 990,509 35 35,400 Saxony Dresden 18,416 4,077,937 113 27,800 Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg 20,452 2,208,321 57 25,200 Schleswig-Holstein Kiel 15,802 2,896,712 86 31,200 Thuringia Erfurt 16,202 2,143,145 57 26,400 Germany Berlin 357,386 83,019,213 3025 37,100 Law Main articles: Law of Germany, Judiciary of Germany, and Law enforcement in Germany Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.[135] The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.[136] Germany's supreme court system is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court.[137] Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public.[138] Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges.[139][140] Germany has a low murder rate with 1.18 murders per 100,000 as of 2016.[141] In 2018, the overall crime rate fell to its lowest since 1992.[142] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Germany Germany hosted the G20 summit in Hamburg, 7–8 July 2017.[143] Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad[144] and maintains relations with more than 190 countries.[145] Germany is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the IMF. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since 1990. Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.[146][147][148] The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies.[149] Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism.[150] The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.[151] It was the world's second biggest aid donor in 2019 after the United States.[152] Military Main article: Bundeswehr Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into the Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr (Joint Medical Service) and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 8th highest in the world.[153] In 2018, military spending was at $49.5 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%.[154] A German Navy Brandenburg-class frigate As of January 2020, the Bundeswehr has a strength of 184,001 active soldiers and 80,947 civilians.[155] Reservists are available to the armed forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad.[156] Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, but this has been officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service.[157][158] Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction.[159] According to SIPRI, Germany was the fourth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2014 to 2018.[160] In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.[161] The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. As of 2017, the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo.[162] Economy Main articles: Economy of Germany and Science and technology in Germany Frankfurt is a leading business centre in Europe and the seat of the European Central Bank.[163] Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation.[4][164][165] It is the world's third largest exporter of goods,[4] and has the largest national economy in Europe which is also the world's fourth largest by nominal GDP[166] and the fifth by PPP.[167] Its GDP per capita measured in purchasing power standards amounts to 121% of the EU27 average (100%).[168] The service sector contributes approximately 69% of the total GDP, industry 31%, and agriculture 1% as of 2017.[4] The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 3.2% as of January 2020, which is the fourth-lowest in the EU.[169] Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 450 million consumers.[170] In 2017, the country accounted for 28% of the Eurozone economy according to the International Monetary Fund.[171] Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro, in 2002.[172] Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt.[173][163] Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,[174] and is the fourth largest by production.[175] The top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics.[176] Germany is one of the largest exporters globally.[177] Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2019, the Fortune Global 500, 29 are headquartered in Germany.[178] 30 major Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index which is operated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange.[179] Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Bosch and Deutsche Telekom.[180] Berlin is a hub for startup companies and has become the leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union.[181] Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model.[182] These companies represent 48% global market leaders in their segments, labelled Hidden Champions.[183] Research and development efforts form an integral part of the German economy.[184] In 2018 Germany ranked fourth globally in terms of number of science and engineering research papers published.[185] Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, and the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Association.[186] Germany is the largest contributor to the European Space Agency.[187] Infrastructure Main articles: Transport in Germany, Energy in Germany, Telecommunications in Germany, and Water supply and sanitation in Germany An ICE 3 on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.[188] Its road network is among the densest in Europe.[189] The motorway (Autobahn) is widely known for having no federally mandated speed limit for some classes of vehicles.[190] The InterCityExpress or ICE train network serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph).[191] The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport.[192] The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world.[193] In 2015, Germany was the world's seventh-largest consumer of energy.[194] The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021.[195] It meets the country's power demands using 40% renewable sources.[196] Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, and water management.[197][198][199] The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%.[200] Nevertheless, the country's total greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2017.[201] The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.[202] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Germany Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of 2017, with 37.4 million visits.[203] Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.[204] Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over €105.3 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports 4.2 million jobs.[205] Germany's most visited and popular landmarks include Cologne Cathedral, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, the Dresden Frauenkirche, Neuschwanstein Castle, Heidelberg Castle, the Wartburg, and Sanssouci Palace.[206] The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.[207] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Germany and Germans With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census,[208] rising to 83.1 million as of 2019,[6] Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the nineteenth-most populous country in the world. Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females).[4] The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates) is below the replacement rate of 2.1 and is one of the lowest fertility rates in the world.[4] Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has exceeded its birth rate. However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants. Germany has the third oldest population in the world, with the average age of 47.4 years.[4] Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries:[209] There is a Danish minority in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein;[209] the Sorbs, a Slavic population, are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg; the Roma and Sinti live throughout the country; and the Frisians are concentrated in Schleswig-Holstein's western coast and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.[209] After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas. Of the country's residents, 18.6 million people (22.5%) were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates).[210] In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants.[211] As of 2018, Germany ranks fifth amongst EU countries in terms of the percentage of migrants in the country's population, at 12.9%.[212] Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions. The country's largest city is Berlin, while its largest urban area is the Ruhr.[213] vte Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany (31 December 2018) Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop. Berlin Berlin Hamburg Hamburg 1 Berlin Berlin 3,644,826 11 Bremen Bremen (state) 569,352 Munich Munich Cologne Cologne 2 Hamburg Hamburg 1,841,179 12 Dresden Saxony 554,649 3 Munich Bavaria 1,471,508 13 Hannover Lower Saxony 538,068 4 Cologne North Rhine-Westphalia 1,085,664 14 Nuremberg Bavaria 518,365 5 Frankfurt Hesse 753,056 15 Duisburg North Rhine-Westphalia 498,590 6 Stuttgart Baden-Württemberg 634,830 16 Bochum North Rhine-Westphalia 364,628 7 Düsseldorf North Rhine-Westphalia 619,294 17 Wuppertal North Rhine-Westphalia 354,382 8 Leipzig Saxony 587,857 18 Bielefeld North Rhine-Westphalia 333,786 9 Dortmund North Rhine-Westphalia 587,010 19 Bonn North Rhine-Westphalia 327,258 10 Essen North Rhine-Westphalia 583,109 20 Münster North Rhine-Westphalia 314,319 Religion Main article: Religion in Germany Cologne Cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The 2011 German Census showed Christianity as the largest religion in Germany, with 66.8% identified themselves as Christian, with 3.8% of those not being church members.[214] 31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen); 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%. According to data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively, of the population.[215][216] Islam is the second largest religion in the country.[217] In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question.[218] Most of the Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations. Other religions comprise less than one percent of Germany's population.[217] A study in 2018 estimated that 38% of the population are not members of any religious organization or denomination,[219] though up to a third may still consider themselves religious. Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before the enforcement of state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas.[220][221] Languages Main articles: German language and Languages of Germany German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.[222] It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union, and one of the three procedural languages of the European Commission.[223] German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.[224] Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two.[222] Education Main article: Education in Germany Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest institution of higher learning and generally counted among its most prestigious. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years.[225] Secondary schooling is divided into tracks based on whether students pursue academic or vocational education.[226] A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school.[225] This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world.[227] Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.[228] The general requirement for university is the Abitur. According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study.[229] The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg University (established in 1386) being the oldest.[230] The Humboldt University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many Western universities.[231][232] In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence. Health Main article: Healthcare in Germany The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.[233] Germany's system of hospitals, called Krankenhäuser, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s.[234] Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. The population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013.[235] In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care.[236] Germany ranked 20th in the world in 2013 in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births). In 2019, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 37%.[237] Obesity in Germany has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. A 2014 study showed that 52 percent of the adult German population was overweight or obese.[238] Culture Main article: Culture of Germany A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Dresden Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"),[239] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.[240] A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014.[241][242] Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices.[243][244] As of 2016 UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.[245] There are a number of public holidays in Germany determined by each state; 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day).[246] Music Main article: Music of Germany Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel were influential composers of the Baroque period. Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras. Carl Maria von Weber, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms were significant Romantic composers. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Wolfgang Rihm are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.[247] As of 2013, Germany was the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.[248] German popular music of the 20th and 21st centuries includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, pop, Ostrock, heavy metal/rock, punk, pop rock, indie, Volksmusik (folk music), schlager pop and German hip hop. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.[249] DJs and artists of the techno and house music scenes of Germany have become well known (e.g. Paul van Dyk, Paul Kalkbrenner, and Scooter).[250] Art and design Main articles: German art, Architecture of Germany, and German fashion C.D. Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818) Franz Marc, Roe Deer in the Forest (1914) German painters have influenced western art. Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism. Several German art groups formed in the 20th century; Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) influenced the development of expressionism in Munich and Berlin. The New Objectivity arose in response to expressionism during the Weimar Republic. After World War II, broad trends in German art include neo-expressionism and the New Leipzig School.[251] Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser Renaissance).[251] Vernacular architecture in Germany is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles.[252] When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style. Expressionist architecture developed in the 1910s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius (New Objectivity), and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius.[251] Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century; he conceived of the glass façade skyscraper.[253] Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Pritzker Prize winners Gottfried Böhm and Frei Otto.[254] German designers became early leaders of modern product design.[255] The Berlin Fashion Week and the fashion trade fair Bread & Butter are held twice a year.[256] Literature and philosophy Main articles: German literature and German philosophy The Brothers Grimm collected and published popular German folk tales. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.[257] The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854.[258] Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass.[259] The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China.[260] The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years.[261] The Leipzig Book Fair also retains a major position in Europe.[262] German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School has been particularly influential.[263] Media Main articles: Media of Germany and Cinema of Germany The largest internationally operating media companies in Germany are the Bertelsmann enterprise, Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat.1 Media. Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households.[264] Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels.[265] There are more than 300 public and private radio stations in Germany; Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio and the public Deutsche Welle is the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages.[265] Germany's print market of newspapers and magazines is the largest in Europe.[265] The papers with the highest circulation are Bild, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Die Welt.[265] The largest magazines include ADAC Motorwelt and Der Spiegel.[265] Germany has a large video gaming market, with over 34 million players nationwide.[266] Babelsberg Studio near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895. The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world. Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film. After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film). East German film was dominated by state-owned film studio DEFA, while the dominant genre in West Germany was the Heimatfilm ("homeland film").[267] During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder brought West German auteur cinema to critical acclaim. The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Various Germans won an Oscar for their performances in other films. The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. The Berlin International Film Festival, known as "Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's leading film festivals. The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards.[268] Cuisine Main article: German cuisine Bavarian Bratwurst with mustard, a pretzel and beer German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share some traditions with Switzerland and Austria). International varieties such as pizza, sushi, Chinese food, Greek food, Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen).[269] German cheeses account for about 22% of all cheese produced in Europe.[270] In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany was either pork, chicken or beef. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1,500 varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.[271] Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions,[272] the national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal; 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world.[273] German beer purity regulations date back to the 16th century.[274] The 2018 Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, giving the country a cumulative total of 300 stars.[275] Sports Main article: Sport in Germany The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. With more than 7 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest single-sport organisation worldwide,[276] and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world.[277] The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014,[278] the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996,[279] and the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2017.[280] Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times (as of 2017). The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships.[281] Sebastian Vettel is also among the top five most successful Formula One drivers of all time.[282] Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count (when combining East and West German medals). Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 1936: the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.[283] Munich hosted the Summer Games of 1972.[284] See also flag Germany portal Index of Germany-related articles Outline of Germany Notes From 1952 to 1990, the entire "Deutschlandlied" was the national anthem, but only the third verse was sung on official occasions. Since 1991, the third verse alone has been the national anthem.[1] Berlin is the sole constitutional capital and de jure seat of government, but the former provisional capital of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn, has the special title of "federal city" (Bundesstadt) and is the primary seat of six ministries.[2] Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany, and Frisian are recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[3] The Federal Republic of Germany was proclaimed on the British, American and French occupation zones on 23 May 1949 while the German Democratic Republic was formed from the Soviet occupation zone on 7 October 1949. German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, About this soundlisten IPA transcription of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland": German pronunciation: [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant][10] References Bundespräsidialamt. "Repräsentation und Integration" (in German). Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016. "The German Federal Government". deutschland.de. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Gesley, Jenny (26 September 2018). "The Protection of Minority and Regional Languages in Germany". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 25 May 2020. "Germany". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 29 March 2020. "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020. "Bevölkerung nach Geschlecht und Staatsangehörigkeit". Destatis. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2018. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 March 2020. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. Retrieved 15 December 2020. "Human Development Report 2020". United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020. Mangold, Max, ed. (2005). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7. Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-674-80688-7. Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 699–704. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. (for diutisc). Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 685–686. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. (for diot). Wagner, G. A; Krbetschek, M; Degering, D; Bahain, J.-J; Shao, Q; Falgueres, C; Voinchet, P; Dolo, J.-M; Garcia, T; Rightmire, G. P (27 August 2010). "Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany". PNAS. 107 (46): 19726–19730. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10719726W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012722107. PMC 2993404. PMID 21041630. Hendry, Lisa (5 May 2018). "Who were the Neanderthals?". Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. "Earliest music instruments found". BBC News. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. "Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative sculpture". The Art Newspaper. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Conard, Nicholas (2009). "A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany". Nature. 459 (7244): 248–252. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..248C. doi:10.1038/nature07995. PMID 19444215. S2CID 205216692. "Nebra Sky Disc". UNESCO. 2013. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. "Germanic Tribes (Teutons)". History Files. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020. Claster, Jill N. (1982). Medieval Experience: 300–1400. New York University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8147-1381-5. Wells, Peter (2004). The Battle That Stopped Rome: Emperor Augustus, Arminius, and the Slaughter of th

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  33. Germany (German: Deutschland, German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic of Germany,[e][f] is a country at the intersection of Central and Western Europe. It is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; covering an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of over 83 million within its 16 constituent states. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. Germany is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city is Berlin, and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD 100. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the semi-presidential Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, World War II, and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Germany was divied into: the Federal Republic of Germany, generally known as West Germany, and the German Democratic Republic, East Germany. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community and the European Union, while the German Democratic Republic was a communist Eastern Bloc state and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the fall of communism, German reunification saw the former East German states join the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990—becoming a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor. Germany is a great power with a strong economy; it has the largest economy in Europe, the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial, scientific and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. As a developed country, which ranks very high on the Human Development Index, it offers social security and a universal health care system, environmental protections, and a tuition-free university education. Germany is also a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. It also has the fourth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire 2.2 East Francia and Holy Roman Empire 2.3 German Confederation and Empire 2.4 Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany 2.5 East and West Germany 2.6 Reunified Germany and the European Union 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity 4 Politics 4.1 Constituent states 4.2 Law 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military 5 Economy 5.1 Infrastructure 5.2 Tourism 6 Demographics 6.1 Religion 6.2 Languages 6.3 Education 6.4 Health 7 Culture 7.1 Music 7.2 Art and design 7.3 Literature and philosophy 7.4 Media 7.5 Cuisine 7.6 Sports 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links Etymology Further information: Names of Germany, Germani, and Germania The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.[11] The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "of the people" (from diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "of the people" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons also originates.[12] History Main article: History of Germany Ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago.[13] The first non-modern human fossil (the Neanderthal) was discovered in the Neander Valley.[14] Similarly dated evidence of modern humans has been found in the Swabian Jura, including 42,000-year-old flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found,[15] the 40,000-year-old Lion Man,[16] and the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels.[17] The Nebra sky disk, created during the European Bronze Age, is attributed to a German site.[18] Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire Main articles: Germania, Migration Period, and Frankish Realm The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[19] From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east, and west, coming into contact with the Celtic, Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes.[20] The Kingdom of East Francia in 843 Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania. In 9 AD, three Roman legions were defeated by Arminius.[21] By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of modern Germany. However, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hesse and the western Rhineland had been incorporated into Roman provinces.[22][23][24] Around 260, Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands.[25] After the invasion of the Huns in 375, and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes moved farther southwest: the Franks established the Frankish Kingdom and pushed east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria, and areas of what is today eastern Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes.[22] East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Main articles: East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne founded the Carolingian Empire in 800; it was divided in 843[26] and the Holy Roman Empire emerged from the eastern portion. The territory initially known as East Francia stretched from the Rhine in the west to the Elbe River in the east and from the North Sea to the Alps.[26] The Ottonian rulers (919–1024) consolidated several major duchies.[27] In 996 Gregory V became the first German Pope, appointed by his cousin Otto III, whom he shortly after crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the Salian emperors (1024–1125), although the emperors lost power through the Investiture controversy.[28] Under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), German princes encouraged German settlement to the south and east (Ostsiedlung). Members of the Hanseatic League, mostly north German towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.[29] Population declined starting with the Great Famine in 1315, followed by the Black Death of 1348–50.[30] The Golden Bull issued in 1356 provided the constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors.[31] Martin Luther (1483–1546), Protestant Reformer Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, laying the basis for the democratization of knowledge.[32] In 1517, Martin Luther incited the Protestant Reformation; the 1555 Peace of Augsburg tolerated the "Evangelical" faith (Lutheranism), but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects (cuius regio, eius religio).[33] From the Cologne War through the Thirty Years' Wars (1618–1648), religious conflict devastated German lands and significantly reduced the population.[34][35] The Peace of Westphalia ended religious warfare among the Imperial Estates;[34] their mostly German-speaking rulers were able to choose Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, or the Reformed faith as their official religion.[36] The legal system initiated by a series of Imperial Reforms (approximately 1495–1555) provided for considerable local autonomy and a stronger Imperial Diet.[37] The House of Habsburg held the imperial crown from 1438 until the death of Charles VI in 1740. Following the War of Austrian Succession and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Charles VI's daughter Maria Theresa ruled as Empress Consort when her husband, Francis I, became Emperor.[38][39] From 1740, dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated German history. In 1772, 1793, and 1795, Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire, agreed to the Partitions of Poland.[40][41] During the period of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic era and the subsequent final meeting of the Imperial Diet, most of the Free Imperial Cities were annexed by dynastic territories; the ecclesiastical territories were secularised and annexed. In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs (Austria) competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars.[42] German Confederation and Empire Main articles: German Question, German Confederation, Unification of Germany, German Empire, and German Colonial Empire The German Confederation in 1815 Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna founded the German Confederation, a loose league of 39 sovereign states. The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president reflected the Congress's rejection of Prussia's rising influence. Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich.[43][44] The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity.[45] In light of revolutionary movements in Europe, intellectuals and commoners started the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, raising the German Question. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, a temporary setback for the movement.[46] King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck as the Minister President of Prussia in 1862. Bismarck successfully concluded the war with Denmark in 1864; the subsequent decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation which excluded Austria. After the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in 1871. Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the King of Prussia ruled as its Kaiser, and Berlin became its capital.[47][48] In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany, Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances and avoiding war.[48] However, under Wilhelm II, Germany took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries.[49] A dual alliance was created with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary; the Triple Alliance of 1882 included Italy. Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances to protect against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.[50] At the Berlin Conference in 1884, Germany claimed several colonies including German East Africa, German South West Africa, Togoland, and Kamerun.[51] Later, Germany further expanded its colonial empire to include holdings in the Pacific and China.[52] The colonial government in South West Africa (present-day Namibia), from 1904 to 1907, carried out the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples as punishment for an uprising;[53][54] this was the 20th century's first genocide.[54] The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 provided the pretext for Austria-Hungary to attack Serbia and trigger World War I. After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed,[55] a general armistice ended the fighting. In the German Revolution (November 1918), Emperor Wilhelm II and the ruling princes abdicated their positions and Germany was declared a federal republic. Germany's new leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, accepting defeat by the Allies. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating, which was seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.[56] Germany lost around 13% of its European territory and ceded all of its colonial possessions in Africa and the South Sea.[57] Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany On 11 August 1919, President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution.[58] In the subsequent struggle for power, communists seized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements elsewhere attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch. Street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops, and a period of hyperinflation followed. A debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in 1924 ushered in the Golden Twenties, an era of artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.[59][60][61] Adolf Hitler, dictator of Nazi Germany (1933–1945) The worldwide Great Depression hit Germany in 1929. Chancellor Heinrich Brüning's government pursued a policy of fiscal austerity and deflation which caused unemployment of nearly 30% by 1932.[62] The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won a special election in 1932 and Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933.[63] After the Reichstag fire, a decree abrogated basic civil rights and the first Nazi concentration camp opened.[64][65] The Enabling Act gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power, overriding the constitution;[66] his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations, and dramatically increased the country's rearmament.[67] A government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works, the most famous of which was the autobahn.[68] In 1935, the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.[69] Germany also reacquired control of the Saarland in 1935,[70] remilitarised the Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich Agreement, and in violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia in March 1939.[71] Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) saw the burning of synagogues, the destruction of Jewish businesses, and mass arrests of Jewish people.[72] German-occupied Europe in 1942 during World War II In August 1939, Hitler's government negotiated the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.[73] On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, beginning World War II in Europe;[74] Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September.[75] In the spring of 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, forcing the French government to sign an armistice. The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. In 1941, German troops invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union. By 1942, Germany and her allies controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa, but following the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in 1943, German forces suffered repeated military defeats. In 1944, the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe; the Western allies landed in France and entered Germany despite a final German counteroffensive. Following Hitler's suicide during the Battle of Berlin, Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.[74][76] Following the end of the war, surviving Nazi officials were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.[77][78] In what later became known as the Holocaust, the German government persecuted minorities, including interning them in concentration and death camps across Europe. In total 17 million people were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, at least 130,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of political and religious opponents.[79] Nazi policies in German-occupied countries resulted in the deaths of an estimated 2.7 million Poles,[80] 1.3 million Ukrainians, 1 million Belarusians and 3.5 million Soviet prisoners of war.[81][77] German military casualties have been estimated at 5.3 million,[82] and around 900,000 German civilians died.[83] Around 12 million ethnic Germans were expelled from across Eastern Europe, and Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory.[84] East and West Germany Main article: History of Germany (1945–1990) American, Soviet, British, and French occupation zones in Germany and the French-controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line were transferred to Poland and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Conference.[85] After Nazi Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four occupation zones. The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik; DDR). They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany.[86] East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was temporary.[87] West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy". Starting in 1948 West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan.[88] Konrad Adenauer was elected the first Federal Chancellor of Germany in 1949. The country enjoyed prolonged economic growth (Wirtschaftswunder) beginning in the early 1950s.[89] West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community.[90] East Germany was an Eastern Bloc state under political and military control by the USSR via occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact. Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany, supported by the Stasi, an immense secret service.[91] While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity.[92] The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, prevented East German citizens from escaping to West Germany, becoming a symbol of the Cold War.[93] Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the late 1960s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik.[94] In 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open its border with Austria, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary and Austria. This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. In an effort to help retain East Germany as a state, the East German authorities eased border restrictions, but this actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process culminating in the Two Plus Four Treaty under which Germany regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990, with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.[95] The fall of the Wall in 1989 became a symbol of the Fall of Communism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, German Reunification and Die Wende.[96] Reunified Germany and the European Union Main articles: German reunification and History of Germany since 1990 The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate in the background United Germany was considered the enlarged continuation of West Germany so it retained its memberships in international organisations.[97] Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act (1994), Berlin again became the capital of Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries.[98] The relocation of the government was completed in 1999, and modernisation of the east German economy was scheduled to last until 2019.[99][100] Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union, signing the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2007,[101] and co-founding the Eurozone.[102] Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban.[103][104] In the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor. In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion stimulus plan.[105] Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0.[106] Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015: the country took in over a million migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states.[107] Geography Main article: Geography of Germany Physical map of Germany Germany is in Western and Central Europe, bordering Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, and Switzerland to the south-southwest. France, Luxembourg and Belgium are situated to the west, with the Netherlands to the northwest. Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. German territory covers 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 348,672 km2 (134,623 sq mi) of land and 8,350 km2 (3,224 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh-largest country in Europe, and the 62nd-largest country in the world.[4] Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,963 metres or 9,721 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: in the municipality Neuendorf-Sachsenbande, Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level[108]) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, and nickel.[4] Climate Most of Germany has a temperate climate, ranging from oceanic in the north to continental in the east and southeast. Winters range from cold in the southern Alps to mild and are generally overcast with limited precipitation, while summers can vary from hot and dry to cool and rainy. The northern regions have prevailing westerly winds that bring in moist air from the North Sea, moderating the temperature and increasing precipitation. Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures.[109] From February 2019 – 2020, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F) in January 2020 to a high of 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) in June 2019.[110] Average monthly precipitation ranged from 30 litres per square metre in February and April 2019 to 125 litres per square metre in February 2020.[111] Average monthly hours of sunshine ranged from 45 in November 2019 to 300 in June 2019.[112] The highest temperature ever recorded in Germany was 42.6 °C on 25 July 2019 in Lingen and the lowest was −37.8 °C on 12 February 1929 in Wolnzach.[113][114] Biodiversity Berchtesgaden National Park The territory of Germany can be divided into five terrestrial ecoregions: Atlantic mixed forests, Baltic mixed forests, Central European mixed forests, Western European broadleaf forests, and Alps conifer and mixed forests.[115] As of 2016 51% of Germany's land area is devoted to agriculture, while 30% is forested and 14% is covered by settlements or infrastructure.[116] Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. According to the National Forest Inventory, beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute just over 40% of the forests; roughly 60% are conifers, particularly spruce and pine.[117] There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.[118] The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol.[119] The 16 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park.[120] In addition, there are 17 Biosphere Reserves[121] and 105 nature parks.[122] More than 400 zoos and animal parks operate in Germany.[123] The Berlin Zoo, which opened in 1844, is the oldest in Germany, and claims the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.[124] Politics Main articles: Politics of Germany, Taxation in Germany, and Federal budget of Germany Frank-Walter Steinmeier - 2018 (cropped).jpg Angela Merkel 2019 (cropped).jpg Frank-Walter Steinmeier President Angela Merkel Chancellor Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. The Bundestag is elected through direct elections using the mixed-member proportional representation system. The members of the Bundesrat represent and are appointed by the governments of the sixteen federated states.[4] The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law, are valid in perpetuity.[125] The president, currently Frank-Walter Steinmeier, is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.[4] The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (president of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.[126] The third-highest official and the head of government is the chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the party or coalition with the most seats in the Bundestag.[4] The chancellor, currently Angela Merkel, is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet.[4] Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party and the Alliance '90/The Greens have also been junior partners in coalition governments. Since 2007, the left-wing populist party The Left has been a staple in the German Bundestag, though they have never been part of the federal government. In the 2017 German federal election, the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.[127][128] Constituent states Main articles: States of Germany and Federalism in Germany Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer.[129] Each state has its own state constitution,[130] and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. As of 2017 Germany is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts.[131] Lower Saxony Lower SaxonyFree Hanseatic City of Bremen BremenHamburg HamburgMecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg- VorpommernSaxony-Anhalt Saxony- AnhaltSaxony SaxonyBrandenburg BrandenburgBerlin BerlinThuringia ThuringiaHesse HesseNorth Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine- WestphaliaRhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-PalatinateBavaria BavariaBaden-Württemberg Baden- WürttembergSaarland SaarlandSchleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein State Capital Area (km2)[132] Population (2018)[133] Nominal GDP billions EUR (2015)[134] Nominal GDP per capita EUR (2015)[134] Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart 35,751 11,069,533 461 42,800 Bavaria Munich 70,550 13,076,721 550 43,100 Berlin Berlin 892 3,644,826 125 35,700 Brandenburg Potsdam 29,654 2,511,917 66 26,500 Bremen Bremen 420 682,986 32 47,600 Hamburg Hamburg 755 1,841,179 110 61,800 Hesse Wiesbaden 21,115 6,265,809 264 43,100 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin 23,214 1,609,675 40 25,000 Lower Saxony Hanover 47,593 7,982,448 259 32,900 North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf 34,113 17,932,651 646 36,500 Rhineland-Palatinate Mainz 19,854 4,084,844 132 32,800 Saarland Saarbrücken 2,569 990,509 35 35,400 Saxony Dresden 18,416 4,077,937 113 27,800 Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg 20,452 2,208,321 57 25,200 Schleswig-Holstein Kiel 15,802 2,896,712 86 31,200 Thuringia Erfurt 16,202 2,143,145 57 26,400 Germany Berlin 357,386 83,019,213 3025 37,100 Law Main articles: Law of Germany, Judiciary of Germany, and Law enforcement in Germany Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.[135] The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.[136] Germany's supreme court system is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court.[137] Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public.[138] Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges.[139][140] Germany has a low murder rate with 1.18 murders per 100,000 as of 2016.[141] In 2018, the overall crime rate fell to its lowest since 1992.[142] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Germany Germany hosted the G20 summit in Hamburg, 7–8 July 2017.[143] Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad[144] and maintains relations with more than 190 countries.[145] Germany is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the IMF. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since 1990. Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.[146][147][148] The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies.[149] Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism.[150] The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.[151] It was the world's second biggest aid donor in 2019 after the United States.[152] Military Main article: Bundeswehr Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into the Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr (Joint Medical Service) and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 8th highest in the world.[153] In 2018, military spending was at $49.5 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%.[154] A German Navy Brandenburg-class frigate As of January 2020, the Bundeswehr has a strength of 184,001 active soldiers and 80,947 civilians.[155] Reservists are available to the armed forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad.[156] Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, but this has been officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service.[157][158] Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction.[159] According to SIPRI, Germany was the fourth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2014 to 2018.[160] In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.[161] The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. As of 2017, the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo.[162] Economy Main articles: Economy of Germany and Science and technology in Germany Frankfurt is a leading business centre in Europe and the seat of the European Central Bank.[163] Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation.[4][164][165] It is the world's third largest exporter of goods,[4] and has the largest national economy in Europe which is also the world's fourth largest by nominal GDP[166] and the fifth by PPP.[167] Its GDP per capita measured in purchasing power standards amounts to 121% of the EU27 average (100%).[168] The service sector contributes approximately 69% of the total GDP, industry 31%, and agriculture 1% as of 2017.[4] The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 3.2% as of January 2020, which is the fourth-lowest in the EU.[169] Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 450 million consumers.[170] In 2017, the country accounted for 28% of the Eurozone economy according to the International Monetary Fund.[171] Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro, in 2002.[172] Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt.[173][163] Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,[174] and is the fourth largest by production.[175] The top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics.[176] Germany is one of the largest exporters globally.[177] Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2019, the Fortune Global 500, 29 are headquartered in Germany.[178] 30 major Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index which is operated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange.[179] Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Bosch and Deutsche Telekom.[180] Berlin is a hub for startup companies and has become the leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union.[181] Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model.[182] These companies represent 48% global market leaders in their segments, labelled Hidden Champions.[183] Research and development efforts form an integral part of the German economy.[184] In 2018 Germany ranked fourth globally in terms of number of science and engineering research papers published.[185] Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, and the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Association.[186] Germany is the largest contributor to the European Space Agency.[187] Infrastructure Main articles: Transport in Germany, Energy in Germany, Telecommunications in Germany, and Water supply and sanitation in Germany An ICE 3 on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.[188] Its road network is among the densest in Europe.[189] The motorway (Autobahn) is widely known for having no federally mandated speed limit for some classes of vehicles.[190] The InterCityExpress or ICE train network serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph).[191] The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport.[192] The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world.[193] In 2015, Germany was the world's seventh-largest consumer of energy.[194] The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021.[195] It meets the country's power demands using 40% renewable sources.[196] Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, and water management.[197][198][199] The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%.[200] Nevertheless, the country's total greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2017.[201] The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.[202] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Germany Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of 2017, with 37.4 million visits.[203] Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.[204] Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over €105.3 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports 4.2 million jobs.[205] Germany's most visited and popular landmarks include Cologne Cathedral, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, the Dresden Frauenkirche, Neuschwanstein Castle, Heidelberg Castle, the Wartburg, and Sanssouci Palace.[206] The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.[207] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Germany and Germans With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census,[208] rising to 83.1 million as of 2019,[6] Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the nineteenth-most populous country in the world. Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females).[4] The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates) is below the replacement rate of 2.1 and is one of the lowest fertility rates in the world.[4] Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has exceeded its birth rate. However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants. Germany has the third oldest population in the world, with the average age of 47.4 years.[4] Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries:[209] There is a Danish minority in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein;[209] the Sorbs, a Slavic population, are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg; the Roma and Sinti live throughout the country; and the Frisians are concentrated in Schleswig-Holstein's western coast and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.[209] After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas. Of the country's residents, 18.6 million people (22.5%) were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates).[210] In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants.[211] As of 2018, Germany ranks fifth amongst EU countries in terms of the percentage of migrants in the country's population, at 12.9%.[212] Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions. The country's largest city is Berlin, while its largest urban area is the Ruhr.[213] vte Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany (31 December 2018) Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop. Berlin Berlin Hamburg Hamburg 1 Berlin Berlin 3,644,826 11 Bremen Bremen (state) 569,352 Munich Munich Cologne Cologne 2 Hamburg Hamburg 1,841,179 12 Dresden Saxony 554,649 3 Munich Bavaria 1,471,508 13 Hannover Lower Saxony 538,068 4 Cologne North Rhine-Westphalia 1,085,664 14 Nuremberg Bavaria 518,365 5 Frankfurt Hesse 753,056 15 Duisburg North Rhine-Westphalia 498,590 6 Stuttgart Baden-Württemberg 634,830 16 Bochum North Rhine-Westphalia 364,628 7 Düsseldorf North Rhine-Westphalia 619,294 17 Wuppertal North Rhine-Westphalia 354,382 8 Leipzig Saxony 587,857 18 Bielefeld North Rhine-Westphalia 333,786 9 Dortmund North Rhine-Westphalia 587,010 19 Bonn North Rhine-Westphalia 327,258 10 Essen North Rhine-Westphalia 583,109 20 Münster North Rhine-Westphalia 314,319 Religion Main article: Religion in Germany Cologne Cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The 2011 German Census showed Christianity as the largest religion in Germany, with 66.8% identified themselves as Christian, with 3.8% of those not being church members.[214] 31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen); 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%. According to data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively, of the population.[215][216] Islam is the second largest religion in the country.[217] In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question.[218] Most of the Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations. Other religions comprise less than one percent of Germany's population.[217] A study in 2018 estimated that 38% of the population are not members of any religious organization or denomination,[219] though up to a third may still consider themselves religious. Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before the enforcement of state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas.[220][221] Languages Main articles: German language and Languages of Germany German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.[222] It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union, and one of the three procedural languages of the European Commission.[223] German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.[224] Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two.[222] Education Main article: Education in Germany Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest institution of higher learning and generally counted among its most prestigious. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years.[225] Secondary schooling is divided into tracks based on whether students pursue academic or vocational education.[226] A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school.[225] This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world.[227] Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.[228] The general requirement for university is the Abitur. According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study.[229] The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg University (established in 1386) being the oldest.[230] The Humboldt University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many Western universities.[231][232] In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence. Health Main article: Healthcare in Germany The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.[233] Germany's system of hospitals, called Krankenhäuser, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s.[234] Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. The population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013.[235] In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care.[236] Germany ranked 20th in the world in 2013 in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births). In 2019, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 37%.[237] Obesity in Germany has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. A 2014 study showed that 52 percent of the adult German population was overweight or obese.[238] Culture Main article: Culture of Germany A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Dresden Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"),[239] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.[240] A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014.[241][242] Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices.[243][244] As of 2016 UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.[245] There are a number of public holidays in Germany determined by each state; 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day).[246] Music Main article: Music of Germany Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel were influential composers of the Baroque period. Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras. Carl Maria von Weber, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms were significant Romantic composers. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Wolfgang Rihm are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.[247] As of 2013, Germany was the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.[248] German popular music of the 20th and 21st centuries includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, pop, Ostrock, heavy metal/rock, punk, pop rock, indie, Volksmusik (folk music), schlager pop and German hip hop. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.[249] DJs and artists of the techno and house music scenes of Germany have become well known (e.g. Paul van Dyk, Paul Kalkbrenner, and Scooter).[250] Art and design Main articles: German art, Architecture of Germany, and German fashion C.D. Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818) Franz Marc, Roe Deer in the Forest (1914) German painters have influenced western art. Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism. Several German art groups formed in the 20th century; Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) influenced the development of expressionism in Munich and Berlin. The New Objectivity arose in response to expressionism during the Weimar Republic. After World War II, broad trends in German art include neo-expressionism and the New Leipzig School.[251] Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser Renaissance).[251] Vernacular architecture in Germany is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles.[252] When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style. Expressionist architecture developed in the 1910s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius (New Objectivity), and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius.[251] Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century; he conceived of the glass façade skyscraper.[253] Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Pritzker Prize winners Gottfried Böhm and Frei Otto.[254] German designers became early leaders of modern product design.[255] The Berlin Fashion Week and the fashion trade fair Bread & Butter are held twice a year.[256] Literature and philosophy Main articles: German literature and German philosophy The Brothers Grimm collected and published popular German folk tales. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.[257] The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854.[258] Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass.[259] The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China.[260] The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years.[261] The Leipzig Book Fair also retains a major position in Europe.[262] German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School has been particularly influential.[263] Media Main articles: Media of Germany and Cinema of Germany The largest internationally operating media companies in Germany are the Bertelsmann enterprise, Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat.1 Media. Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households.[264] Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels.[265] There are more than 300 public and private radio stations in Germany; Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio and the public Deutsche Welle is the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages.[265] Germany's print market of newspapers and magazines is the largest in Europe.[265] The papers with the highest circulation are Bild, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Die Welt.[265] The largest magazines include ADAC Motorwelt and Der Spiegel.[265] Germany has a large video gaming market, with over 34 million players nationwide.[266] Babelsberg Studio near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895. The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world. Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film. After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film). East German film was dominated by state-owned film studio DEFA, while the dominant genre in West Germany was the Heimatfilm ("homeland film").[267] During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder brought West German auteur cinema to critical acclaim. The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Various Germans won an Oscar for their performances in other films. The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. The Berlin International Film Festival, known as "Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's leading film festivals. The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards.[268] Cuisine Main article: German cuisine Bavarian Bratwurst with mustard, a pretzel and beer German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share some traditions with Switzerland and Austria). International varieties such as pizza, sushi, Chinese food, Greek food, Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen).[269] German cheeses account for about 22% of all cheese produced in Europe.[270] In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany was either pork, chicken or beef. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1,500 varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.[271] Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions,[272] the national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal; 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world.[273] German beer purity regulations date back to the 16th century.[274] The 2018 Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, giving the country a cumulative total of 300 stars.[275] Sports Main article: Sport in Germany The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. With more than 7 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest single-sport organisation worldwide,[276] and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world.[277] The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014,[278] the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996,[279] and the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2017.[280] Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times (as of 2017). The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships.[281] Sebastian Vettel is also among the top five most successful Formula One drivers of all time.[282] Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count (when combining East and West German medals). Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 1936: the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.[283] Munich hosted the Summer Games of 1972.[284] See also flag Germany portal Index of Germany-related articles Outline of Germany Notes From 1952 to 1990, the entire "Deutschlandlied" was the national anthem, but only the third verse was sung on official occasions. Since 1991, the third verse alone has been the national anthem.[1] Berlin is the sole constitutional capital and de jure seat of government, but the former provisional capital of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn, has the special title of "federal city" (Bundesstadt) and is the primary seat of six ministries.[2] Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany, and Frisian are recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[3] The Federal Republic of Germany was proclaimed on the British, American and French occupation zones on 23 May 1949 while the German Democratic Republic was formed from the Soviet occupation zone on 7 October 1949. German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, About this soundlisten IPA transcription of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland": German pronunciation: [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant][10] References Bundespräsidialamt. "Repräsentation und Integration" (in German). Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016. "The German Federal Government". deutschland.de. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Gesley, Jenny (26 September 2018). "The Protection of Minority and Regional Languages in Germany". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 25 May 2020. "Germany". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 29 March 2020. "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020. "Bevölkerung nach Geschlecht und Staatsangehörigkeit". Destatis. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2018. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 March 2020. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. Retrieved 15 December 2020. "Human Development Report 2020". United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020. Mangold, Max, ed. (2005). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7. Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-674-80688-7. Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 699–704. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. (for diutisc). Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 685–686. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. (for diot). Wagner, G. A; Krbetschek, M; Degering, D; Bahain, J.-J; Shao, Q; Falgueres, C; Voinchet, P; Dolo, J.-M; Garcia, T; Rightmire, G. P (27 August 2010). "Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany". PNAS. 107 (46): 19726–19730. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10719726W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012722107. PMC 2993404. PMID 21041630. Hendry, Lisa (5 May 2018). "Who were the Neanderthals?". Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. "Earliest music instruments found". BBC News. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. "Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative sculpture". The Art Newspaper. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Conard, Nicholas (2009). "A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany". Nature. 459 (7244): 248–252. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..248C. doi:10.1038/nature07995. PMID 19444215. S2CID 205216692. "Nebra Sky Disc". UNESCO. 2013. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. "Germanic Tribes (Teutons)". History Files. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020. Claster, Jill N. (1982). Medieval Experience: 300–1400. New York University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8147-1381-5. Wells, Peter (2004). The Battle That Stopped Rome: Emperor Augustus, Arminius, and the Slaughter of th

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  34. Germany (German: Deutschland, German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic of Germany,[e][f] is a country at the intersection of Central and Western Europe. It is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; covering an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of over 83 million within its 16 constituent states. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. Germany is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city is Berlin, and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD 100. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the semi-presidential Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, World War II, and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Germany was divied into: the Federal Republic of Germany, generally known as West Germany, and the German Democratic Republic, East Germany. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community and the European Union, while the German Democratic Republic was a communist Eastern Bloc state and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the fall of communism, German reunification saw the former East German states join the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990—becoming a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor. Germany is a great power with a strong economy; it has the largest economy in Europe, the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial, scientific and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. As a developed country, which ranks very high on the Human Development Index, it offers social security and a universal health care system, environmental protections, and a tuition-free university education. Germany is also a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. It also has the fourth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire 2.2 East Francia and Holy Roman Empire 2.3 German Confederation and Empire 2.4 Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany 2.5 East and West Germany 2.6 Reunified Germany and the European Union 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity 4 Politics 4.1 Constituent states 4.2 Law 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military 5 Economy 5.1 Infrastructure 5.2 Tourism 6 Demographics 6.1 Religion 6.2 Languages 6.3 Education 6.4 Health 7 Culture 7.1 Music 7.2 Art and design 7.3 Literature and philosophy 7.4 Media 7.5 Cuisine 7.6 Sports 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links Etymology Further information: Names of Germany, Germani, and Germania The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.[11] The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "of the people" (from diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "of the people" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons also originates.[12] History Main article: History of Germany Ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago.[13] The first non-modern human fossil (the Neanderthal) was discovered in the Neander Valley.[14] Similarly dated evidence of modern humans has been found in the Swabian Jura, including 42,000-year-old flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found,[15] the 40,000-year-old Lion Man,[16] and the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels.[17] The Nebra sky disk, created during the European Bronze Age, is attributed to a German site.[18] Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire Main articles: Germania, Migration Period, and Frankish Realm The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[19] From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east, and west, coming into contact with the Celtic, Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes.[20] The Kingdom of East Francia in 843 Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania. In 9 AD, three Roman legions were defeated by Arminius.[21] By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of modern Germany. However, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hesse and the western Rhineland had been incorporated into Roman provinces.[22][23][24] Around 260, Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands.[25] After the invasion of the Huns in 375, and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes moved farther southwest: the Franks established the Frankish Kingdom and pushed east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria, and areas of what is today eastern Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes.[22] East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Main articles: East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne founded the Carolingian Empire in 800; it was divided in 843[26] and the Holy Roman Empire emerged from the eastern portion. The territory initially known as East Francia stretched from the Rhine in the west to the Elbe River in the east and from the North Sea to the Alps.[26] The Ottonian rulers (919–1024) consolidated several major duchies.[27] In 996 Gregory V became the first German Pope, appointed by his cousin Otto III, whom he shortly after crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the Salian emperors (1024–1125), although the emperors lost power through the Investiture controversy.[28] Under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), German princes encouraged German settlement to the south and east (Ostsiedlung). Members of the Hanseatic League, mostly north German towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.[29] Population declined starting with the Great Famine in 1315, followed by the Black Death of 1348–50.[30] The Golden Bull issued in 1356 provided the constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors.[31] Martin Luther (1483–1546), Protestant Reformer Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, laying the basis for the democratization of knowledge.[32] In 1517, Martin Luther incited the Protestant Reformation; the 1555 Peace of Augsburg tolerated the "Evangelical" faith (Lutheranism), but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects (cuius regio, eius religio).[33] From the Cologne War through the Thirty Years' Wars (1618–1648), religious conflict devastated German lands and significantly reduced the population.[34][35] The Peace of Westphalia ended religious warfare among the Imperial Estates;[34] their mostly German-speaking rulers were able to choose Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, or the Reformed faith as their official religion.[36] The legal system initiated by a series of Imperial Reforms (approximately 1495–1555) provided for considerable local autonomy and a stronger Imperial Diet.[37] The House of Habsburg held the imperial crown from 1438 until the death of Charles VI in 1740. Following the War of Austrian Succession and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Charles VI's daughter Maria Theresa ruled as Empress Consort when her husband, Francis I, became Emperor.[38][39] From 1740, dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated German history. In 1772, 1793, and 1795, Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire, agreed to the Partitions of Poland.[40][41] During the period of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic era and the subsequent final meeting of the Imperial Diet, most of the Free Imperial Cities were annexed by dynastic territories; the ecclesiastical territories were secularised and annexed. In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs (Austria) competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars.[42] German Confederation and Empire Main articles: German Question, German Confederation, Unification of Germany, German Empire, and German Colonial Empire The German Confederation in 1815 Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna founded the German Confederation, a loose league of 39 sovereign states. The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president reflected the Congress's rejection of Prussia's rising influence. Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich.[43][44] The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity.[45] In light of revolutionary movements in Europe, intellectuals and commoners started the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, raising the German Question. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, a temporary setback for the movement.[46] King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck as the Minister President of Prussia in 1862. Bismarck successfully concluded the war with Denmark in 1864; the subsequent decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation which excluded Austria. After the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in 1871. Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the King of Prussia ruled as its Kaiser, and Berlin became its capital.[47][48] In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany, Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances and avoiding war.[48] However, under Wilhelm II, Germany took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries.[49] A dual alliance was created with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary; the Triple Alliance of 1882 included Italy. Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances to protect against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.[50] At the Berlin Conference in 1884, Germany claimed several colonies including German East Africa, German South West Africa, Togoland, and Kamerun.[51] Later, Germany further expanded its colonial empire to include holdings in the Pacific and China.[52] The colonial government in South West Africa (present-day Namibia), from 1904 to 1907, carried out the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples as punishment for an uprising;[53][54] this was the 20th century's first genocide.[54] The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 provided the pretext for Austria-Hungary to attack Serbia and trigger World War I. After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed,[55] a general armistice ended the fighting. In the German Revolution (November 1918), Emperor Wilhelm II and the ruling princes abdicated their positions and Germany was declared a federal republic. Germany's new leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, accepting defeat by the Allies. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating, which was seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.[56] Germany lost around 13% of its European territory and ceded all of its colonial possessions in Africa and the South Sea.[57] Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany On 11 August 1919, President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution.[58] In the subsequent struggle for power, communists seized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements elsewhere attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch. Street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops, and a period of hyperinflation followed. A debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in 1924 ushered in the Golden Twenties, an era of artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.[59][60][61] Adolf Hitler, dictator of Nazi Germany (1933–1945) The worldwide Great Depression hit Germany in 1929. Chancellor Heinrich Brüning's government pursued a policy of fiscal austerity and deflation which caused unemployment of nearly 30% by 1932.[62] The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won a special election in 1932 and Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933.[63] After the Reichstag fire, a decree abrogated basic civil rights and the first Nazi concentration camp opened.[64][65] The Enabling Act gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power, overriding the constitution;[66] his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations, and dramatically increased the country's rearmament.[67] A government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works, the most famous of which was the autobahn.[68] In 1935, the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.[69] Germany also reacquired control of the Saarland in 1935,[70] remilitarised the Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich Agreement, and in violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia in March 1939.[71] Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) saw the burning of synagogues, the destruction of Jewish businesses, and mass arrests of Jewish people.[72] German-occupied Europe in 1942 during World War II In August 1939, Hitler's government negotiated the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.[73] On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, beginning World War II in Europe;[74] Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September.[75] In the spring of 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, forcing the French government to sign an armistice. The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. In 1941, German troops invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union. By 1942, Germany and her allies controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa, but following the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in 1943, German forces suffered repeated military defeats. In 1944, the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe; the Western allies landed in France and entered Germany despite a final German counteroffensive. Following Hitler's suicide during the Battle of Berlin, Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.[74][76] Following the end of the war, surviving Nazi officials were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.[77][78] In what later became known as the Holocaust, the German government persecuted minorities, including interning them in concentration and death camps across Europe. In total 17 million people were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, at least 130,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of political and religious opponents.[79] Nazi policies in German-occupied countries resulted in the deaths of an estimated 2.7 million Poles,[80] 1.3 million Ukrainians, 1 million Belarusians and 3.5 million Soviet prisoners of war.[81][77] German military casualties have been estimated at 5.3 million,[82] and around 900,000 German civilians died.[83] Around 12 million ethnic Germans were expelled from across Eastern Europe, and Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory.[84] East and West Germany Main article: History of Germany (1945–1990) American, Soviet, British, and French occupation zones in Germany and the French-controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line were transferred to Poland and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Conference.[85] After Nazi Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four occupation zones. The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik; DDR). They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany.[86] East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was temporary.[87] West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy". Starting in 1948 West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan.[88] Konrad Adenauer was elected the first Federal Chancellor of Germany in 1949. The country enjoyed prolonged economic growth (Wirtschaftswunder) beginning in the early 1950s.[89] West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community.[90] East Germany was an Eastern Bloc state under political and military control by the USSR via occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact. Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany, supported by the Stasi, an immense secret service.[91] While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity.[92] The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, prevented East German citizens from escaping to West Germany, becoming a symbol of the Cold War.[93] Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the late 1960s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik.[94] In 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open its border with Austria, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary and Austria. This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. In an effort to help retain East Germany as a state, the East German authorities eased border restrictions, but this actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process culminating in the Two Plus Four Treaty under which Germany regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990, with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.[95] The fall of the Wall in 1989 became a symbol of the Fall of Communism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, German Reunification and Die Wende.[96] Reunified Germany and the European Union Main articles: German reunification and History of Germany since 1990 The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate in the background United Germany was considered the enlarged continuation of West Germany so it retained its memberships in international organisations.[97] Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act (1994), Berlin again became the capital of Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries.[98] The relocation of the government was completed in 1999, and modernisation of the east German economy was scheduled to last until 2019.[99][100] Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union, signing the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2007,[101] and co-founding the Eurozone.[102] Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban.[103][104] In the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor. In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion stimulus plan.[105] Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0.[106] Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015: the country took in over a million migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states.[107] Geography Main article: Geography of Germany Physical map of Germany Germany is in Western and Central Europe, bordering Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, and Switzerland to the south-southwest. France, Luxembourg and Belgium are situated to the west, with the Netherlands to the northwest. Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. German territory covers 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 348,672 km2 (134,623 sq mi) of land and 8,350 km2 (3,224 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh-largest country in Europe, and the 62nd-largest country in the world.[4] Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,963 metres or 9,721 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: in the municipality Neuendorf-Sachsenbande, Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level[108]) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, and nickel.[4] Climate Most of Germany has a temperate climate, ranging from oceanic in the north to continental in the east and southeast. Winters range from cold in the southern Alps to mild and are generally overcast with limited precipitation, while summers can vary from hot and dry to cool and rainy. The northern regions have prevailing westerly winds that bring in moist air from the North Sea, moderating the temperature and increasing precipitation. Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures.[109] From February 2019 – 2020, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F) in January 2020 to a high of 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) in June 2019.[110] Average monthly precipitation ranged from 30 litres per square metre in February and April 2019 to 125 litres per square metre in February 2020.[111] Average monthly hours of sunshine ranged from 45 in November 2019 to 300 in June 2019.[112] The highest temperature ever recorded in Germany was 42.6 °C on 25 July 2019 in Lingen and the lowest was −37.8 °C on 12 February 1929 in Wolnzach.[113][114] Biodiversity Berchtesgaden National Park The territory of Germany can be divided into five terrestrial ecoregions: Atlantic mixed forests, Baltic mixed forests, Central European mixed forests, Western European broadleaf forests, and Alps conifer and mixed forests.[115] As of 2016 51% of Germany's land area is devoted to agriculture, while 30% is forested and 14% is covered by settlements or infrastructure.[116] Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. According to the National Forest Inventory, beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute just over 40% of the forests; roughly 60% are conifers, particularly spruce and pine.[117] There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.[118] The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol.[119] The 16 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park.[120] In addition, there are 17 Biosphere Reserves[121] and 105 nature parks.[122] More than 400 zoos and animal parks operate in Germany.[123] The Berlin Zoo, which opened in 1844, is the oldest in Germany, and claims the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.[124] Politics Main articles: Politics of Germany, Taxation in Germany, and Federal budget of Germany Frank-Walter Steinmeier - 2018 (cropped).jpg Angela Merkel 2019 (cropped).jpg Frank-Walter Steinmeier President Angela Merkel Chancellor Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. The Bundestag is elected through direct elections using the mixed-member proportional representation system. The members of the Bundesrat represent and are appointed by the governments of the sixteen federated states.[4] The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law, are valid in perpetuity.[125] The president, currently Frank-Walter Steinmeier, is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.[4] The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (president of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.[126] The third-highest official and the head of government is the chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the party or coalition with the most seats in the Bundestag.[4] The chancellor, currently Angela Merkel, is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet.[4] Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party and the Alliance '90/The Greens have also been junior partners in coalition governments. Since 2007, the left-wing populist party The Left has been a staple in the German Bundestag, though they have never been part of the federal government. In the 2017 German federal election, the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.[127][128] Constituent states Main articles: States of Germany and Federalism in Germany Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer.[129] Each state has its own state constitution,[130] and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. As of 2017 Germany is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts.[131] Lower Saxony Lower SaxonyFree Hanseatic City of Bremen BremenHamburg HamburgMecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg- VorpommernSaxony-Anhalt Saxony- AnhaltSaxony SaxonyBrandenburg BrandenburgBerlin BerlinThuringia ThuringiaHesse HesseNorth Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine- WestphaliaRhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-PalatinateBavaria BavariaBaden-Württemberg Baden- WürttembergSaarland SaarlandSchleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein State Capital Area (km2)[132] Population (2018)[133] Nominal GDP billions EUR (2015)[134] Nominal GDP per capita EUR (2015)[134] Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart 35,751 11,069,533 461 42,800 Bavaria Munich 70,550 13,076,721 550 43,100 Berlin Berlin 892 3,644,826 125 35,700 Brandenburg Potsdam 29,654 2,511,917 66 26,500 Bremen Bremen 420 682,986 32 47,600 Hamburg Hamburg 755 1,841,179 110 61,800 Hesse Wiesbaden 21,115 6,265,809 264 43,100 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin 23,214 1,609,675 40 25,000 Lower Saxony Hanover 47,593 7,982,448 259 32,900 North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf 34,113 17,932,651 646 36,500 Rhineland-Palatinate Mainz 19,854 4,084,844 132 32,800 Saarland Saarbrücken 2,569 990,509 35 35,400 Saxony Dresden 18,416 4,077,937 113 27,800 Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg 20,452 2,208,321 57 25,200 Schleswig-Holstein Kiel 15,802 2,896,712 86 31,200 Thuringia Erfurt 16,202 2,143,145 57 26,400 Germany Berlin 357,386 83,019,213 3025 37,100 Law Main articles: Law of Germany, Judiciary of Germany, and Law enforcement in Germany Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.[135] The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.[136] Germany's supreme court system is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court.[137] Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public.[138] Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges.[139][140] Germany has a low murder rate with 1.18 murders per 100,000 as of 2016.[141] In 2018, the overall crime rate fell to its lowest since 1992.[142] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Germany Germany hosted the G20 summit in Hamburg, 7–8 July 2017.[143] Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad[144] and maintains relations with more than 190 countries.[145] Germany is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the IMF. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since 1990. Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.[146][147][148] The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies.[149] Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism.[150] The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.[151] It was the world's second biggest aid donor in 2019 after the United States.[152] Military Main article: Bundeswehr Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into the Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr (Joint Medical Service) and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 8th highest in the world.[153] In 2018, military spending was at $49.5 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%.[154] A German Navy Brandenburg-class frigate As of January 2020, the Bundeswehr has a strength of 184,001 active soldiers and 80,947 civilians.[155] Reservists are available to the armed forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad.[156] Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, but this has been officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service.[157][158] Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction.[159] According to SIPRI, Germany was the fourth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2014 to 2018.[160] In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.[161] The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. As of 2017, the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo.[162] Economy Main articles: Economy of Germany and Science and technology in Germany Frankfurt is a leading business centre in Europe and the seat of the European Central Bank.[163] Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation.[4][164][165] It is the world's third largest exporter of goods,[4] and has the largest national economy in Europe which is also the world's fourth largest by nominal GDP[166] and the fifth by PPP.[167] Its GDP per capita measured in purchasing power standards amounts to 121% of the EU27 average (100%).[168] The service sector contributes approximately 69% of the total GDP, industry 31%, and agriculture 1% as of 2017.[4] The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 3.2% as of January 2020, which is the fourth-lowest in the EU.[169] Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 450 million consumers.[170] In 2017, the country accounted for 28% of the Eurozone economy according to the International Monetary Fund.[171] Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro, in 2002.[172] Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt.[173][163] Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,[174] and is the fourth largest by production.[175] The top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics.[176] Germany is one of the largest exporters globally.[177] Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2019, the Fortune Global 500, 29 are headquartered in Germany.[178] 30 major Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index which is operated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange.[179] Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Bosch and Deutsche Telekom.[180] Berlin is a hub for startup companies and has become the leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union.[181] Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model.[182] These companies represent 48% global market leaders in their segments, labelled Hidden Champions.[183] Research and development efforts form an integral part of the German economy.[184] In 2018 Germany ranked fourth globally in terms of number of science and engineering research papers published.[185] Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, and the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Association.[186] Germany is the largest contributor to the European Space Agency.[187] Infrastructure Main articles: Transport in Germany, Energy in Germany, Telecommunications in Germany, and Water supply and sanitation in Germany An ICE 3 on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.[188] Its road network is among the densest in Europe.[189] The motorway (Autobahn) is widely known for having no federally mandated speed limit for some classes of vehicles.[190] The InterCityExpress or ICE train network serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph).[191] The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport.[192] The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world.[193] In 2015, Germany was the world's seventh-largest consumer of energy.[194] The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021.[195] It meets the country's power demands using 40% renewable sources.[196] Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, and water management.[197][198][199] The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%.[200] Nevertheless, the country's total greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2017.[201] The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.[202] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Germany Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of 2017, with 37.4 million visits.[203] Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.[204] Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over €105.3 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports 4.2 million jobs.[205] Germany's most visited and popular landmarks include Cologne Cathedral, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, the Dresden Frauenkirche, Neuschwanstein Castle, Heidelberg Castle, the Wartburg, and Sanssouci Palace.[206] The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.[207] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Germany and Germans With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census,[208] rising to 83.1 million as of 2019,[6] Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the nineteenth-most populous country in the world. Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females).[4] The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates) is below the replacement rate of 2.1 and is one of the lowest fertility rates in the world.[4] Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has exceeded its birth rate. However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants. Germany has the third oldest population in the world, with the average age of 47.4 years.[4] Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries:[209] There is a Danish minority in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein;[209] the Sorbs, a Slavic population, are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg; the Roma and Sinti live throughout the country; and the Frisians are concentrated in Schleswig-Holstein's western coast and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.[209] After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas. Of the country's residents, 18.6 million people (22.5%) were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates).[210] In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants.[211] As of 2018, Germany ranks fifth amongst EU countries in terms of the percentage of migrants in the country's population, at 12.9%.[212] Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions. The country's largest city is Berlin, while its largest urban area is the Ruhr.[213] vte Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany (31 December 2018) Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop. Berlin Berlin Hamburg Hamburg 1 Berlin Berlin 3,644,826 11 Bremen Bremen (state) 569,352 Munich Munich Cologne Cologne 2 Hamburg Hamburg 1,841,179 12 Dresden Saxony 554,649 3 Munich Bavaria 1,471,508 13 Hannover Lower Saxony 538,068 4 Cologne North Rhine-Westphalia 1,085,664 14 Nuremberg Bavaria 518,365 5 Frankfurt Hesse 753,056 15 Duisburg North Rhine-Westphalia 498,590 6 Stuttgart Baden-Württemberg 634,830 16 Bochum North Rhine-Westphalia 364,628 7 Düsseldorf North Rhine-Westphalia 619,294 17 Wuppertal North Rhine-Westphalia 354,382 8 Leipzig Saxony 587,857 18 Bielefeld North Rhine-Westphalia 333,786 9 Dortmund North Rhine-Westphalia 587,010 19 Bonn North Rhine-Westphalia 327,258 10 Essen North Rhine-Westphalia 583,109 20 Münster North Rhine-Westphalia 314,319 Religion Main article: Religion in Germany Cologne Cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The 2011 German Census showed Christianity as the largest religion in Germany, with 66.8% identified themselves as Christian, with 3.8% of those not being church members.[214] 31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen); 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%. According to data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively, of the population.[215][216] Islam is the second largest religion in the country.[217] In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question.[218] Most of the Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations. Other religions comprise less than one percent of Germany's population.[217] A study in 2018 estimated that 38% of the population are not members of any religious organization or denomination,[219] though up to a third may still consider themselves religious. Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before the enforcement of state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas.[220][221] Languages Main articles: German language and Languages of Germany German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.[222] It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union, and one of the three procedural languages of the European Commission.[223] German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.[224] Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two.[222] Education Main article: Education in Germany Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest institution of higher learning and generally counted among its most prestigious. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years.[225] Secondary schooling is divided into tracks based on whether students pursue academic or vocational education.[226] A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school.[225] This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world.[227] Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.[228] The general requirement for university is the Abitur. According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study.[229] The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg University (established in 1386) being the oldest.[230] The Humboldt University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many Western universities.[231][232] In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence. Health Main article: Healthcare in Germany The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.[233] Germany's system of hospitals, called Krankenhäuser, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s.[234] Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. The population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013.[235] In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care.[236] Germany ranked 20th in the world in 2013 in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births). In 2019, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 37%.[237] Obesity in Germany has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. A 2014 study showed that 52 percent of the adult German population was overweight or obese.[238] Culture Main article: Culture of Germany A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Dresden Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"),[239] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.[240] A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014.[241][242] Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices.[243][244] As of 2016 UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.[245] There are a number of public holidays in Germany determined by each state; 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day).[246] Music Main article: Music of Germany Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel were influential composers of the Baroque period. Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras. Carl Maria von Weber, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms were significant Romantic composers. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Wolfgang Rihm are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.[247] As of 2013, Germany was the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.[248] German popular music of the 20th and 21st centuries includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, pop, Ostrock, heavy metal/rock, punk, pop rock, indie, Volksmusik (folk music), schlager pop and German hip hop. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.[249] DJs and artists of the techno and house music scenes of Germany have become well known (e.g. Paul van Dyk, Paul Kalkbrenner, and Scooter).[250] Art and design Main articles: German art, Architecture of Germany, and German fashion C.D. Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818) Franz Marc, Roe Deer in the Forest (1914) German painters have influenced western art. Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism. Several German art groups formed in the 20th century; Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) influenced the development of expressionism in Munich and Berlin. The New Objectivity arose in response to expressionism during the Weimar Republic. After World War II, broad trends in German art include neo-expressionism and the New Leipzig School.[251] Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser Renaissance).[251] Vernacular architecture in Germany is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles.[252] When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style. Expressionist architecture developed in the 1910s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius (New Objectivity), and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius.[251] Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century; he conceived of the glass façade skyscraper.[253] Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Pritzker Prize winners Gottfried Böhm and Frei Otto.[254] German designers became early leaders of modern product design.[255] The Berlin Fashion Week and the fashion trade fair Bread & Butter are held twice a year.[256] Literature and philosophy Main articles: German literature and German philosophy The Brothers Grimm collected and published popular German folk tales. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.[257] The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854.[258] Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass.[259] The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China.[260] The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years.[261] The Leipzig Book Fair also retains a major position in Europe.[262] German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School has been particularly influential.[263] Media Main articles: Media of Germany and Cinema of Germany The largest internationally operating media companies in Germany are the Bertelsmann enterprise, Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat.1 Media. Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households.[264] Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels.[265] There are more than 300 public and private radio stations in Germany; Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio and the public Deutsche Welle is the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages.[265] Germany's print market of newspapers and magazines is the largest in Europe.[265] The papers with the highest circulation are Bild, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Die Welt.[265] The largest magazines include ADAC Motorwelt and Der Spiegel.[265] Germany has a large video gaming market, with over 34 million players nationwide.[266] Babelsberg Studio near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895. The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world. Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film. After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film). East German film was dominated by state-owned film studio DEFA, while the dominant genre in West Germany was the Heimatfilm ("homeland film").[267] During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder brought West German auteur cinema to critical acclaim. The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Various Germans won an Oscar for their performances in other films. The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. The Berlin International Film Festival, known as "Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's leading film festivals. The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards.[268] Cuisine Main article: German cuisine Bavarian Bratwurst with mustard, a pretzel and beer German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share some traditions with Switzerland and Austria). International varieties such as pizza, sushi, Chinese food, Greek food, Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen).[269] German cheeses account for about 22% of all cheese produced in Europe.[270] In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany was either pork, chicken or beef. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1,500 varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.[271] Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions,[272] the national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal; 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world.[273] German beer purity regulations date back to the 16th century.[274] The 2018 Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, giving the country a cumulative total of 300 stars.[275] Sports Main article: Sport in Germany The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. With more than 7 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest single-sport organisation worldwide,[276] and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world.[277] The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014,[278] the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996,[279] and the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2017.[280] Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times (as of 2017). The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships.[281] Sebastian Vettel is also among the top five most successful Formula One drivers of all time.[282] Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count (when combining East and West German medals). Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 1936: the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.[283] Munich hosted the Summer Games of 1972.[284] See also flag Germany portal Index of Germany-related articles Outline of Germany Notes From 1952 to 1990, the entire "Deutschlandlied" was the national anthem, but only the third verse was sung on official occasions. Since 1991, the third verse alone has been the national anthem.[1] Berlin is the sole constitutional capital and de jure seat of government, but the former provisional capital of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn, has the special title of "federal city" (Bundesstadt) and is the primary seat of six ministries.[2] Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany, and Frisian are recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[3] The Federal Republic of Germany was proclaimed on the British, American and French occupation zones on 23 May 1949 while the German Democratic Republic was formed from the Soviet occupation zone on 7 October 1949. German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, About this soundlisten IPA transcription of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland": German pronunciation: [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant][10] References Bundespräsidialamt. "Repräsentation und Integration" (in German). Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016. "The German Federal Government". deutschland.de. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Gesley, Jenny (26 September 2018). "The Protection of Minority and Regional Languages in Germany". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 25 May 2020. "Germany". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 29 March 2020. "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020. "Bevölkerung nach Geschlecht und Staatsangehörigkeit". Destatis. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2018. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 March 2020. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. Retrieved 15 December 2020. "Human Development Report 2020". United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020. Mangold, Max, ed. (2005). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7. Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-674-80688-7. Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 699–704. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. (for diutisc). Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 685–686. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. (for diot). Wagner, G. A; Krbetschek, M; Degering, D; Bahain, J.-J; Shao, Q; Falgueres, C; Voinchet, P; Dolo, J.-M; Garcia, T; Rightmire, G. P (27 August 2010). "Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany". PNAS. 107 (46): 19726–19730. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10719726W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012722107. PMC 2993404. PMID 21041630. Hendry, Lisa (5 May 2018). "Who were the Neanderthals?". Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. "Earliest music instruments found". BBC News. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. "Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative sculpture". The Art Newspaper. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Conard, Nicholas (2009). "A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany". Nature. 459 (7244): 248–252. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..248C. doi:10.1038/nature07995. PMID 19444215. S2CID 205216692. "Nebra Sky Disc". UNESCO. 2013. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. "Germanic Tribes (Teutons)". History Files. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020. Claster, Jill N. (1982). Medieval Experience: 300–1400. New York University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8147-1381-5. Wells, Peter (2004). The Battle That Stopped Rome: Emperor Augustus, Arminius, and the Slaughter of th

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  35. Germany (German: Deutschland, German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic of Germany,[e][f] is a country at the intersection of Central and Western Europe. It is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; covering an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of over 83 million within its 16 constituent states. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. Germany is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city is Berlin, and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD 100. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the semi-presidential Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, World War II, and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Germany was divied into: the Federal Republic of Germany, generally known as West Germany, and the German Democratic Republic, East Germany. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community and the European Union, while the German Democratic Republic was a communist Eastern Bloc state and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the fall of communism, German reunification saw the former East German states join the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990—becoming a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor. Germany is a great power with a strong economy; it has the largest economy in Europe, the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial, scientific and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. As a developed country, which ranks very high on the Human Development Index, it offers social security and a universal health care system, environmental protections, and a tuition-free university education. Germany is also a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. It also has the fourth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire 2.2 East Francia and Holy Roman Empire 2.3 German Confederation and Empire 2.4 Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany 2.5 East and West Germany 2.6 Reunified Germany and the European Union 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity 4 Politics 4.1 Constituent states 4.2 Law 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military 5 Economy 5.1 Infrastructure 5.2 Tourism 6 Demographics 6.1 Religion 6.2 Languages 6.3 Education 6.4 Health 7 Culture 7.1 Music 7.2 Art and design 7.3 Literature and philosophy 7.4 Media 7.5 Cuisine 7.6 Sports 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links Etymology Further information: Names of Germany, Germani, and Germania The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.[11] The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "of the people" (from diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "of the people" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons also originates.[12] History Main article: History of Germany Ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago.[13] The first non-modern human fossil (the Neanderthal) was discovered in the Neander Valley.[14] Similarly dated evidence of modern humans has been found in the Swabian Jura, including 42,000-year-old flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found,[15] the 40,000-year-old Lion Man,[16] and the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels.[17] The Nebra sky disk, created during the European Bronze Age, is attributed to a German site.[18] Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire Main articles: Germania, Migration Period, and Frankish Realm The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[19] From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east, and west, coming into contact with the Celtic, Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes.[20] The Kingdom of East Francia in 843 Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania. In 9 AD, three Roman legions were defeated by Arminius.[21] By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of modern Germany. However, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hesse and the western Rhineland had been incorporated into Roman provinces.[22][23][24] Around 260, Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands.[25] After the invasion of the Huns in 375, and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes moved farther southwest: the Franks established the Frankish Kingdom and pushed east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria, and areas of what is today eastern Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes.[22] East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Main articles: East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne founded the Carolingian Empire in 800; it was divided in 843[26] and the Holy Roman Empire emerged from the eastern portion. The territory initially known as East Francia stretched from the Rhine in the west to the Elbe River in the east and from the North Sea to the Alps.[26] The Ottonian rulers (919–1024) consolidated several major duchies.[27] In 996 Gregory V became the first German Pope, appointed by his cousin Otto III, whom he shortly after crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the Salian emperors (1024–1125), although the emperors lost power through the Investiture controversy.[28] Under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), German princes encouraged German settlement to the south and east (Ostsiedlung). Members of the Hanseatic League, mostly north German towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.[29] Population declined starting with the Great Famine in 1315, followed by the Black Death of 1348–50.[30] The Golden Bull issued in 1356 provided the constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors.[31] Martin Luther (1483–1546), Protestant Reformer Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, laying the basis for the democratization of knowledge.[32] In 1517, Martin Luther incited the Protestant Reformation; the 1555 Peace of Augsburg tolerated the "Evangelical" faith (Lutheranism), but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects (cuius regio, eius religio).[33] From the Cologne War through the Thirty Years' Wars (1618–1648), religious conflict devastated German lands and significantly reduced the population.[34][35] The Peace of Westphalia ended religious warfare among the Imperial Estates;[34] their mostly German-speaking rulers were able to choose Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, or the Reformed faith as their official religion.[36] The legal system initiated by a series of Imperial Reforms (approximately 1495–1555) provided for considerable local autonomy and a stronger Imperial Diet.[37] The House of Habsburg held the imperial crown from 1438 until the death of Charles VI in 1740. Following the War of Austrian Succession and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Charles VI's daughter Maria Theresa ruled as Empress Consort when her husband, Francis I, became Emperor.[38][39] From 1740, dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated German history. In 1772, 1793, and 1795, Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire, agreed to the Partitions of Poland.[40][41] During the period of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic era and the subsequent final meeting of the Imperial Diet, most of the Free Imperial Cities were annexed by dynastic territories; the ecclesiastical territories were secularised and annexed. In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs (Austria) competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars.[42] German Confederation and Empire Main articles: German Question, German Confederation, Unification of Germany, German Empire, and German Colonial Empire The German Confederation in 1815 Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna founded the German Confederation, a loose league of 39 sovereign states. The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president reflected the Congress's rejection of Prussia's rising influence. Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich.[43][44] The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity.[45] In light of revolutionary movements in Europe, intellectuals and commoners started the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, raising the German Question. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, a temporary setback for the movement.[46] King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck as the Minister President of Prussia in 1862. Bismarck successfully concluded the war with Denmark in 1864; the subsequent decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation which excluded Austria. After the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in 1871. Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the King of Prussia ruled as its Kaiser, and Berlin became its capital.[47][48] In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany, Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances and avoiding war.[48] However, under Wilhelm II, Germany took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries.[49] A dual alliance was created with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary; the Triple Alliance of 1882 included Italy. Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances to protect against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.[50] At the Berlin Conference in 1884, Germany claimed several colonies including German East Africa, German South West Africa, Togoland, and Kamerun.[51] Later, Germany further expanded its colonial empire to include holdings in the Pacific and China.[52] The colonial government in South West Africa (present-day Namibia), from 1904 to 1907, carried out the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples as punishment for an uprising;[53][54] this was the 20th century's first genocide.[54] The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 provided the pretext for Austria-Hungary to attack Serbia and trigger World War I. After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed,[55] a general armistice ended the fighting. In the German Revolution (November 1918), Emperor Wilhelm II and the ruling princes abdicated their positions and Germany was declared a federal republic. Germany's new leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, accepting defeat by the Allies. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating, which was seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.[56] Germany lost around 13% of its European territory and ceded all of its colonial possessions in Africa and the South Sea.[57] Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany On 11 August 1919, President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution.[58] In the subsequent struggle for power, communists seized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements elsewhere attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch. Street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops, and a period of hyperinflation followed. A debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in 1924 ushered in the Golden Twenties, an era of artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.[59][60][61] Adolf Hitler, dictator of Nazi Germany (1933–1945) The worldwide Great Depression hit Germany in 1929. Chancellor Heinrich Brüning's government pursued a policy of fiscal austerity and deflation which caused unemployment of nearly 30% by 1932.[62] The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won a special election in 1932 and Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933.[63] After the Reichstag fire, a decree abrogated basic civil rights and the first Nazi concentration camp opened.[64][65] The Enabling Act gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power, overriding the constitution;[66] his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations, and dramatically increased the country's rearmament.[67] A government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works, the most famous of which was the autobahn.[68] In 1935, the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.[69] Germany also reacquired control of the Saarland in 1935,[70] remilitarised the Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich Agreement, and in violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia in March 1939.[71] Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) saw the burning of synagogues, the destruction of Jewish businesses, and mass arrests of Jewish people.[72] German-occupied Europe in 1942 during World War II In August 1939, Hitler's government negotiated the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.[73] On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, beginning World War II in Europe;[74] Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September.[75] In the spring of 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, forcing the French government to sign an armistice. The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. In 1941, German troops invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union. By 1942, Germany and her allies controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa, but following the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in 1943, German forces suffered repeated military defeats. In 1944, the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe; the Western allies landed in France and entered Germany despite a final German counteroffensive. Following Hitler's suicide during the Battle of Berlin, Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.[74][76] Following the end of the war, surviving Nazi officials were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.[77][78] In what later became known as the Holocaust, the German government persecuted minorities, including interning them in concentration and death camps across Europe. In total 17 million people were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, at least 130,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of political and religious opponents.[79] Nazi policies in German-occupied countries resulted in the deaths of an estimated 2.7 million Poles,[80] 1.3 million Ukrainians, 1 million Belarusians and 3.5 million Soviet prisoners of war.[81][77] German military casualties have been estimated at 5.3 million,[82] and around 900,000 German civilians died.[83] Around 12 million ethnic Germans were expelled from across Eastern Europe, and Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory.[84] East and West Germany Main article: History of Germany (1945–1990) American, Soviet, British, and French occupation zones in Germany and the French-controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line were transferred to Poland and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Conference.[85] After Nazi Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four occupation zones. The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik; DDR). They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany.[86] East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was temporary.[87] West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy". Starting in 1948 West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan.[88] Konrad Adenauer was elected the first Federal Chancellor of Germany in 1949. The country enjoyed prolonged economic growth (Wirtschaftswunder) beginning in the early 1950s.[89] West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community.[90] East Germany was an Eastern Bloc state under political and military control by the USSR via occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact. Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany, supported by the Stasi, an immense secret service.[91] While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity.[92] The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, prevented East German citizens from escaping to West Germany, becoming a symbol of the Cold War.[93] Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the late 1960s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik.[94] In 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open its border with Austria, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary and Austria. This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. In an effort to help retain East Germany as a state, the East German authorities eased border restrictions, but this actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process culminating in the Two Plus Four Treaty under which Germany regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990, with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.[95] The fall of the Wall in 1989 became a symbol of the Fall of Communism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, German Reunification and Die Wende.[96] Reunified Germany and the European Union Main articles: German reunification and History of Germany since 1990 The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate in the background United Germany was considered the enlarged continuation of West Germany so it retained its memberships in international organisations.[97] Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act (1994), Berlin again became the capital of Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries.[98] The relocation of the government was completed in 1999, and modernisation of the east German economy was scheduled to last until 2019.[99][100] Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union, signing the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2007,[101] and co-founding the Eurozone.[102] Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban.[103][104] In the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor. In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion stimulus plan.[105] Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0.[106] Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015: the country took in over a million migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states.[107] Geography Main article: Geography of Germany Physical map of Germany Germany is in Western and Central Europe, bordering Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, and Switzerland to the south-southwest. France, Luxembourg and Belgium are situated to the west, with the Netherlands to the northwest. Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. German territory covers 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 348,672 km2 (134,623 sq mi) of land and 8,350 km2 (3,224 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh-largest country in Europe, and the 62nd-largest country in the world.[4] Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,963 metres or 9,721 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: in the municipality Neuendorf-Sachsenbande, Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level[108]) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, and nickel.[4] Climate Most of Germany has a temperate climate, ranging from oceanic in the north to continental in the east and southeast. Winters range from cold in the southern Alps to mild and are generally overcast with limited precipitation, while summers can vary from hot and dry to cool and rainy. The northern regions have prevailing westerly winds that bring in moist air from the North Sea, moderating the temperature and increasing precipitation. Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures.[109] From February 2019 – 2020, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F) in January 2020 to a high of 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) in June 2019.[110] Average monthly precipitation ranged from 30 litres per square metre in February and April 2019 to 125 litres per square metre in February 2020.[111] Average monthly hours of sunshine ranged from 45 in November 2019 to 300 in June 2019.[112] The highest temperature ever recorded in Germany was 42.6 °C on 25 July 2019 in Lingen and the lowest was −37.8 °C on 12 February 1929 in Wolnzach.[113][114] Biodiversity Berchtesgaden National Park The territory of Germany can be divided into five terrestrial ecoregions: Atlantic mixed forests, Baltic mixed forests, Central European mixed forests, Western European broadleaf forests, and Alps conifer and mixed forests.[115] As of 2016 51% of Germany's land area is devoted to agriculture, while 30% is forested and 14% is covered by settlements or infrastructure.[116] Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. According to the National Forest Inventory, beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute just over 40% of the forests; roughly 60% are conifers, particularly spruce and pine.[117] There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.[118] The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol.[119] The 16 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park.[120] In addition, there are 17 Biosphere Reserves[121] and 105 nature parks.[122] More than 400 zoos and animal parks operate in Germany.[123] The Berlin Zoo, which opened in 1844, is the oldest in Germany, and claims the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.[124] Politics Main articles: Politics of Germany, Taxation in Germany, and Federal budget of Germany Frank-Walter Steinmeier - 2018 (cropped).jpg Angela Merkel 2019 (cropped).jpg Frank-Walter Steinmeier President Angela Merkel Chancellor Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. The Bundestag is elected through direct elections using the mixed-member proportional representation system. The members of the Bundesrat represent and are appointed by the governments of the sixteen federated states.[4] The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law, are valid in perpetuity.[125] The president, currently Frank-Walter Steinmeier, is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.[4] The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (president of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.[126] The third-highest official and the head of government is the chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the party or coalition with the most seats in the Bundestag.[4] The chancellor, currently Angela Merkel, is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet.[4] Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party and the Alliance '90/The Greens have also been junior partners in coalition governments. Since 2007, the left-wing populist party The Left has been a staple in the German Bundestag, though they have never been part of the federal government. In the 2017 German federal election, the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.[127][128] Constituent states Main articles: States of Germany and Federalism in Germany Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer.[129] Each state has its own state constitution,[130] and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. As of 2017 Germany is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts.[131] Lower Saxony Lower SaxonyFree Hanseatic City of Bremen BremenHamburg HamburgMecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg- VorpommernSaxony-Anhalt Saxony- AnhaltSaxony SaxonyBrandenburg BrandenburgBerlin BerlinThuringia ThuringiaHesse HesseNorth Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine- WestphaliaRhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-PalatinateBavaria BavariaBaden-Württemberg Baden- WürttembergSaarland SaarlandSchleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein State Capital Area (km2)[132] Population (2018)[133] Nominal GDP billions EUR (2015)[134] Nominal GDP per capita EUR (2015)[134] Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart 35,751 11,069,533 461 42,800 Bavaria Munich 70,550 13,076,721 550 43,100 Berlin Berlin 892 3,644,826 125 35,700 Brandenburg Potsdam 29,654 2,511,917 66 26,500 Bremen Bremen 420 682,986 32 47,600 Hamburg Hamburg 755 1,841,179 110 61,800 Hesse Wiesbaden 21,115 6,265,809 264 43,100 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin 23,214 1,609,675 40 25,000 Lower Saxony Hanover 47,593 7,982,448 259 32,900 North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf 34,113 17,932,651 646 36,500 Rhineland-Palatinate Mainz 19,854 4,084,844 132 32,800 Saarland Saarbrücken 2,569 990,509 35 35,400 Saxony Dresden 18,416 4,077,937 113 27,800 Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg 20,452 2,208,321 57 25,200 Schleswig-Holstein Kiel 15,802 2,896,712 86 31,200 Thuringia Erfurt 16,202 2,143,145 57 26,400 Germany Berlin 357,386 83,019,213 3025 37,100 Law Main articles: Law of Germany, Judiciary of Germany, and Law enforcement in Germany Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.[135] The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.[136] Germany's supreme court system is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court.[137] Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public.[138] Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges.[139][140] Germany has a low murder rate with 1.18 murders per 100,000 as of 2016.[141] In 2018, the overall crime rate fell to its lowest since 1992.[142] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Germany Germany hosted the G20 summit in Hamburg, 7–8 July 2017.[143] Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad[144] and maintains relations with more than 190 countries.[145] Germany is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the IMF. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since 1990. Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.[146][147][148] The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies.[149] Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism.[150] The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.[151] It was the world's second biggest aid donor in 2019 after the United States.[152] Military Main article: Bundeswehr Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into the Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr (Joint Medical Service) and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 8th highest in the world.[153] In 2018, military spending was at $49.5 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%.[154] A German Navy Brandenburg-class frigate As of January 2020, the Bundeswehr has a strength of 184,001 active soldiers and 80,947 civilians.[155] Reservists are available to the armed forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad.[156] Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, but this has been officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service.[157][158] Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction.[159] According to SIPRI, Germany was the fourth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2014 to 2018.[160] In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.[161] The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. As of 2017, the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo.[162] Economy Main articles: Economy of Germany and Science and technology in Germany Frankfurt is a leading business centre in Europe and the seat of the European Central Bank.[163] Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation.[4][164][165] It is the world's third largest exporter of goods,[4] and has the largest national economy in Europe which is also the world's fourth largest by nominal GDP[166] and the fifth by PPP.[167] Its GDP per capita measured in purchasing power standards amounts to 121% of the EU27 average (100%).[168] The service sector contributes approximately 69% of the total GDP, industry 31%, and agriculture 1% as of 2017.[4] The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 3.2% as of January 2020, which is the fourth-lowest in the EU.[169] Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 450 million consumers.[170] In 2017, the country accounted for 28% of the Eurozone economy according to the International Monetary Fund.[171] Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro, in 2002.[172] Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt.[173][163] Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,[174] and is the fourth largest by production.[175] The top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics.[176] Germany is one of the largest exporters globally.[177] Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2019, the Fortune Global 500, 29 are headquartered in Germany.[178] 30 major Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index which is operated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange.[179] Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Bosch and Deutsche Telekom.[180] Berlin is a hub for startup companies and has become the leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union.[181] Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model.[182] These companies represent 48% global market leaders in their segments, labelled Hidden Champions.[183] Research and development efforts form an integral part of the German economy.[184] In 2018 Germany ranked fourth globally in terms of number of science and engineering research papers published.[185] Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, and the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Association.[186] Germany is the largest contributor to the European Space Agency.[187] Infrastructure Main articles: Transport in Germany, Energy in Germany, Telecommunications in Germany, and Water supply and sanitation in Germany An ICE 3 on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.[188] Its road network is among the densest in Europe.[189] The motorway (Autobahn) is widely known for having no federally mandated speed limit for some classes of vehicles.[190] The InterCityExpress or ICE train network serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph).[191] The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport.[192] The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world.[193] In 2015, Germany was the world's seventh-largest consumer of energy.[194] The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021.[195] It meets the country's power demands using 40% renewable sources.[196] Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, and water management.[197][198][199] The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%.[200] Nevertheless, the country's total greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2017.[201] The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.[202] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Germany Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of 2017, with 37.4 million visits.[203] Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.[204] Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over €105.3 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports 4.2 million jobs.[205] Germany's most visited and popular landmarks include Cologne Cathedral, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, the Dresden Frauenkirche, Neuschwanstein Castle, Heidelberg Castle, the Wartburg, and Sanssouci Palace.[206] The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.[207] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Germany and Germans With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census,[208] rising to 83.1 million as of 2019,[6] Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the nineteenth-most populous country in the world. Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females).[4] The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates) is below the replacement rate of 2.1 and is one of the lowest fertility rates in the world.[4] Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has exceeded its birth rate. However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants. Germany has the third oldest population in the world, with the average age of 47.4 years.[4] Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries:[209] There is a Danish minority in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein;[209] the Sorbs, a Slavic population, are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg; the Roma and Sinti live throughout the country; and the Frisians are concentrated in Schleswig-Holstein's western coast and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.[209] After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas. Of the country's residents, 18.6 million people (22.5%) were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates).[210] In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants.[211] As of 2018, Germany ranks fifth amongst EU countries in terms of the percentage of migrants in the country's population, at 12.9%.[212] Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions. The country's largest city is Berlin, while its largest urban area is the Ruhr.[213] vte Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany (31 December 2018) Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop. Berlin Berlin Hamburg Hamburg 1 Berlin Berlin 3,644,826 11 Bremen Bremen (state) 569,352 Munich Munich Cologne Cologne 2 Hamburg Hamburg 1,841,179 12 Dresden Saxony 554,649 3 Munich Bavaria 1,471,508 13 Hannover Lower Saxony 538,068 4 Cologne North Rhine-Westphalia 1,085,664 14 Nuremberg Bavaria 518,365 5 Frankfurt Hesse 753,056 15 Duisburg North Rhine-Westphalia 498,590 6 Stuttgart Baden-Württemberg 634,830 16 Bochum North Rhine-Westphalia 364,628 7 Düsseldorf North Rhine-Westphalia 619,294 17 Wuppertal North Rhine-Westphalia 354,382 8 Leipzig Saxony 587,857 18 Bielefeld North Rhine-Westphalia 333,786 9 Dortmund North Rhine-Westphalia 587,010 19 Bonn North Rhine-Westphalia 327,258 10 Essen North Rhine-Westphalia 583,109 20 Münster North Rhine-Westphalia 314,319 Religion Main article: Religion in Germany Cologne Cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The 2011 German Census showed Christianity as the largest religion in Germany, with 66.8% identified themselves as Christian, with 3.8% of those not being church members.[214] 31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen); 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%. According to data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively, of the population.[215][216] Islam is the second largest religion in the country.[217] In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question.[218] Most of the Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations. Other religions comprise less than one percent of Germany's population.[217] A study in 2018 estimated that 38% of the population are not members of any religious organization or denomination,[219] though up to a third may still consider themselves religious. Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before the enforcement of state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas.[220][221] Languages Main articles: German language and Languages of Germany German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.[222] It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union, and one of the three procedural languages of the European Commission.[223] German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.[224] Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two.[222] Education Main article: Education in Germany Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest institution of higher learning and generally counted among its most prestigious. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years.[225] Secondary schooling is divided into tracks based on whether students pursue academic or vocational education.[226] A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school.[225] This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world.[227] Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.[228] The general requirement for university is the Abitur. According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study.[229] The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg University (established in 1386) being the oldest.[230] The Humboldt University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many Western universities.[231][232] In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence. Health Main article: Healthcare in Germany The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.[233] Germany's system of hospitals, called Krankenhäuser, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s.[234] Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. The population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013.[235] In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care.[236] Germany ranked 20th in the world in 2013 in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births). In 2019, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 37%.[237] Obesity in Germany has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. A 2014 study showed that 52 percent of the adult German population was overweight or obese.[238] Culture Main article: Culture of Germany A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Dresden Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"),[239] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.[240] A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014.[241][242] Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices.[243][244] As of 2016 UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.[245] There are a number of public holidays in Germany determined by each state; 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day).[246] Music Main article: Music of Germany Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel were influential composers of the Baroque period. Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras. Carl Maria von Weber, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms were significant Romantic composers. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Wolfgang Rihm are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.[247] As of 2013, Germany was the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.[248] German popular music of the 20th and 21st centuries includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, pop, Ostrock, heavy metal/rock, punk, pop rock, indie, Volksmusik (folk music), schlager pop and German hip hop. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.[249] DJs and artists of the techno and house music scenes of Germany have become well known (e.g. Paul van Dyk, Paul Kalkbrenner, and Scooter).[250] Art and design Main articles: German art, Architecture of Germany, and German fashion C.D. Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818) Franz Marc, Roe Deer in the Forest (1914) German painters have influenced western art. Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism. Several German art groups formed in the 20th century; Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) influenced the development of expressionism in Munich and Berlin. The New Objectivity arose in response to expressionism during the Weimar Republic. After World War II, broad trends in German art include neo-expressionism and the New Leipzig School.[251] Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser Renaissance).[251] Vernacular architecture in Germany is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles.[252] When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style. Expressionist architecture developed in the 1910s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius (New Objectivity), and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius.[251] Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century; he conceived of the glass façade skyscraper.[253] Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Pritzker Prize winners Gottfried Böhm and Frei Otto.[254] German designers became early leaders of modern product design.[255] The Berlin Fashion Week and the fashion trade fair Bread & Butter are held twice a year.[256] Literature and philosophy Main articles: German literature and German philosophy The Brothers Grimm collected and published popular German folk tales. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.[257] The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854.[258] Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass.[259] The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China.[260] The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years.[261] The Leipzig Book Fair also retains a major position in Europe.[262] German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School has been particularly influential.[263] Media Main articles: Media of Germany and Cinema of Germany The largest internationally operating media companies in Germany are the Bertelsmann enterprise, Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat.1 Media. Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households.[264] Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels.[265] There are more than 300 public and private radio stations in Germany; Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio and the public Deutsche Welle is the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages.[265] Germany's print market of newspapers and magazines is the largest in Europe.[265] The papers with the highest circulation are Bild, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Die Welt.[265] The largest magazines include ADAC Motorwelt and Der Spiegel.[265] Germany has a large video gaming market, with over 34 million players nationwide.[266] Babelsberg Studio near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895. The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world. Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film. After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film). East German film was dominated by state-owned film studio DEFA, while the dominant genre in West Germany was the Heimatfilm ("homeland film").[267] During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder brought West German auteur cinema to critical acclaim. The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Various Germans won an Oscar for their performances in other films. The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. The Berlin International Film Festival, known as "Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's leading film festivals. The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards.[268] Cuisine Main article: German cuisine Bavarian Bratwurst with mustard, a pretzel and beer German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share some traditions with Switzerland and Austria). International varieties such as pizza, sushi, Chinese food, Greek food, Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen).[269] German cheeses account for about 22% of all cheese produced in Europe.[270] In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany was either pork, chicken or beef. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1,500 varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.[271] Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions,[272] the national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal; 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world.[273] German beer purity regulations date back to the 16th century.[274] The 2018 Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, giving the country a cumulative total of 300 stars.[275] Sports Main article: Sport in Germany The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. With more than 7 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest single-sport organisation worldwide,[276] and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world.[277] The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014,[278] the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996,[279] and the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2017.[280] Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times (as of 2017). The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships.[281] Sebastian Vettel is also among the top five most successful Formula One drivers of all time.[282] Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count (when combining East and West German medals). Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 1936: the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.[283] Munich hosted the Summer Games of 1972.[284] See also flag Germany portal Index of Germany-related articles Outline of Germany Notes From 1952 to 1990, the entire "Deutschlandlied" was the national anthem, but only the third verse was sung on official occasions. Since 1991, the third verse alone has been the national anthem.[1] Berlin is the sole constitutional capital and de jure seat of government, but the former provisional capital of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn, has the special title of "federal city" (Bundesstadt) and is the primary seat of six ministries.[2] Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany, and Frisian are recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[3] The Federal Republic of Germany was proclaimed on the British, American and French occupation zones on 23 May 1949 while the German Democratic Republic was formed from the Soviet occupation zone on 7 October 1949. German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, About this soundlisten IPA transcription of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland": German pronunciation: [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant][10] References Bundespräsidialamt. "Repräsentation und Integration" (in German). Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016. "The German Federal Government". deutschland.de. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Gesley, Jenny (26 September 2018). "The Protection of Minority and Regional Languages in Germany". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 25 May 2020. "Germany". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 29 March 2020. "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020. "Bevölkerung nach Geschlecht und Staatsangehörigkeit". Destatis. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2018. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 March 2020. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. Retrieved 15 December 2020. "Human Development Report 2020". United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020. Mangold, Max, ed. (2005). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7. Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-674-80688-7. Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 699–704. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. (for diutisc). Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 685–686. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. (for diot). Wagner, G. A; Krbetschek, M; Degering, D; Bahain, J.-J; Shao, Q; Falgueres, C; Voinchet, P; Dolo, J.-M; Garcia, T; Rightmire, G. P (27 August 2010). "Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany". PNAS. 107 (46): 19726–19730. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10719726W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012722107. PMC 2993404. PMID 21041630. Hendry, Lisa (5 May 2018). "Who were the Neanderthals?". Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. "Earliest music instruments found". BBC News. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. "Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative sculpture". The Art Newspaper. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Conard, Nicholas (2009). "A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany". Nature. 459 (7244): 248–252. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..248C. doi:10.1038/nature07995. PMID 19444215. S2CID 205216692. "Nebra Sky Disc". UNESCO. 2013. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. "Germanic Tribes (Teutons)". History Files. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020. Claster, Jill N. (1982). Medieval Experience: 300–1400. New York University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8147-1381-5. Wells, Peter (2004). The Battle That Stopped Rome: Emperor Augustus, Arminius, and the Slaughter of th

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  36. Germany (German: Deutschland, German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic of Germany,[e][f] is a country at the intersection of Central and Western Europe. It is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; covering an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of over 83 million within its 16 constituent states. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. Germany is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city is Berlin, and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD 100. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the semi-presidential Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, World War II, and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Germany was divied into: the Federal Republic of Germany, generally known as West Germany, and the German Democratic Republic, East Germany. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community and the European Union, while the German Democratic Republic was a communist Eastern Bloc state and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the fall of communism, German reunification saw the former East German states join the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990—becoming a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor. Germany is a great power with a strong economy; it has the largest economy in Europe, the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial, scientific and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. As a developed country, which ranks very high on the Human Development Index, it offers social security and a universal health care system, environmental protections, and a tuition-free university education. Germany is also a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. It also has the fourth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire 2.2 East Francia and Holy Roman Empire 2.3 German Confederation and Empire 2.4 Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany 2.5 East and West Germany 2.6 Reunified Germany and the European Union 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity 4 Politics 4.1 Constituent states 4.2 Law 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military 5 Economy 5.1 Infrastructure 5.2 Tourism 6 Demographics 6.1 Religion 6.2 Languages 6.3 Education 6.4 Health 7 Culture 7.1 Music 7.2 Art and design 7.3 Literature and philosophy 7.4 Media 7.5 Cuisine 7.6 Sports 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links Etymology Further information: Names of Germany, Germani, and Germania The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.[11] The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "of the people" (from diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "of the people" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons also originates.[12] History Main article: History of Germany Ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago.[13] The first non-modern human fossil (the Neanderthal) was discovered in the Neander Valley.[14] Similarly dated evidence of modern humans has been found in the Swabian Jura, including 42,000-year-old flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found,[15] the 40,000-year-old Lion Man,[16] and the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels.[17] The Nebra sky disk, created during the European Bronze Age, is attributed to a German site.[18] Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire Main articles: Germania, Migration Period, and Frankish Realm The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[19] From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east, and west, coming into contact with the Celtic, Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes.[20] The Kingdom of East Francia in 843 Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania. In 9 AD, three Roman legions were defeated by Arminius.[21] By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of modern Germany. However, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hesse and the western Rhineland had been incorporated into Roman provinces.[22][23][24] Around 260, Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands.[25] After the invasion of the Huns in 375, and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes moved farther southwest: the Franks established the Frankish Kingdom and pushed east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria, and areas of what is today eastern Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes.[22] East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Main articles: East Francia and Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne founded the Carolingian Empire in 800; it was divided in 843[26] and the Holy Roman Empire emerged from the eastern portion. The territory initially known as East Francia stretched from the Rhine in the west to the Elbe River in the east and from the North Sea to the Alps.[26] The Ottonian rulers (919–1024) consolidated several major duchies.[27] In 996 Gregory V became the first German Pope, appointed by his cousin Otto III, whom he shortly after crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the Salian emperors (1024–1125), although the emperors lost power through the Investiture controversy.[28] Under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), German princes encouraged German settlement to the south and east (Ostsiedlung). Members of the Hanseatic League, mostly north German towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.[29] Population declined starting with the Great Famine in 1315, followed by the Black Death of 1348–50.[30] The Golden Bull issued in 1356 provided the constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors.[31] Martin Luther (1483–1546), Protestant Reformer Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, laying the basis for the democratization of knowledge.[32] In 1517, Martin Luther incited the Protestant Reformation; the 1555 Peace of Augsburg tolerated the "Evangelical" faith (Lutheranism), but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects (cuius regio, eius religio).[33] From the Cologne War through the Thirty Years' Wars (1618–1648), religious conflict devastated German lands and significantly reduced the population.[34][35] The Peace of Westphalia ended religious warfare among the Imperial Estates;[34] their mostly German-speaking rulers were able to choose Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, or the Reformed faith as their official religion.[36] The legal system initiated by a series of Imperial Reforms (approximately 1495–1555) provided for considerable local autonomy and a stronger Imperial Diet.[37] The House of Habsburg held the imperial crown from 1438 until the death of Charles VI in 1740. Following the War of Austrian Succession and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Charles VI's daughter Maria Theresa ruled as Empress Consort when her husband, Francis I, became Emperor.[38][39] From 1740, dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated German history. In 1772, 1793, and 1795, Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire, agreed to the Partitions of Poland.[40][41] During the period of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic era and the subsequent final meeting of the Imperial Diet, most of the Free Imperial Cities were annexed by dynastic territories; the ecclesiastical territories were secularised and annexed. In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; France, Russia, Prussia and the Habsburgs (Austria) competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars.[42] German Confederation and Empire Main articles: German Question, German Confederation, Unification of Germany, German Empire, and German Colonial Empire The German Confederation in 1815 Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna founded the German Confederation, a loose league of 39 sovereign states. The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president reflected the Congress's rejection of Prussia's rising influence. Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich.[43][44] The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity.[45] In light of revolutionary movements in Europe, intellectuals and commoners started the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, raising the German Question. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, a temporary setback for the movement.[46] King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck as the Minister President of Prussia in 1862. Bismarck successfully concluded the war with Denmark in 1864; the subsequent decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation which excluded Austria. After the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in 1871. Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the King of Prussia ruled as its Kaiser, and Berlin became its capital.[47][48] In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany, Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances and avoiding war.[48] However, under Wilhelm II, Germany took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries.[49] A dual alliance was created with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary; the Triple Alliance of 1882 included Italy. Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances to protect against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.[50] At the Berlin Conference in 1884, Germany claimed several colonies including German East Africa, German South West Africa, Togoland, and Kamerun.[51] Later, Germany further expanded its colonial empire to include holdings in the Pacific and China.[52] The colonial government in South West Africa (present-day Namibia), from 1904 to 1907, carried out the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples as punishment for an uprising;[53][54] this was the 20th century's first genocide.[54] The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 provided the pretext for Austria-Hungary to attack Serbia and trigger World War I. After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed,[55] a general armistice ended the fighting. In the German Revolution (November 1918), Emperor Wilhelm II and the ruling princes abdicated their positions and Germany was declared a federal republic. Germany's new leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, accepting defeat by the Allies. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating, which was seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.[56] Germany lost around 13% of its European territory and ceded all of its colonial possessions in Africa and the South Sea.[57] Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany On 11 August 1919, President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution.[58] In the subsequent struggle for power, communists seized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements elsewhere attempted to overthrow the Republic in the Kapp Putsch. Street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops, and a period of hyperinflation followed. A debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in 1924 ushered in the Golden Twenties, an era of artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.[59][60][61] Adolf Hitler, dictator of Nazi Germany (1933–1945) The worldwide Great Depression hit Germany in 1929. Chancellor Heinrich Brüning's government pursued a policy of fiscal austerity and deflation which caused unemployment of nearly 30% by 1932.[62] The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won a special election in 1932 and Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933.[63] After the Reichstag fire, a decree abrogated basic civil rights and the first Nazi concentration camp opened.[64][65] The Enabling Act gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power, overriding the constitution;[66] his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations, and dramatically increased the country's rearmament.[67] A government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works, the most famous of which was the autobahn.[68] In 1935, the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.[69] Germany also reacquired control of the Saarland in 1935,[70] remilitarised the Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich Agreement, and in violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia in March 1939.[71] Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) saw the burning of synagogues, the destruction of Jewish businesses, and mass arrests of Jewish people.[72] German-occupied Europe in 1942 during World War II In August 1939, Hitler's government negotiated the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.[73] On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, beginning World War II in Europe;[74] Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September.[75] In the spring of 1940, Germany conquered Denmark and Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, forcing the French government to sign an armistice. The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. In 1941, German troops invaded Yugoslavia, Greece and the Soviet Union. By 1942, Germany and her allies controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa, but following the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in 1943, German forces suffered repeated military defeats. In 1944, the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe; the Western allies landed in France and entered Germany despite a final German counteroffensive. Following Hitler's suicide during the Battle of Berlin, Germany surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.[74][76] Following the end of the war, surviving Nazi officials were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.[77][78] In what later became known as the Holocaust, the German government persecuted minorities, including interning them in concentration and death camps across Europe. In total 17 million people were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, at least 130,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of political and religious opponents.[79] Nazi policies in German-occupied countries resulted in the deaths of an estimated 2.7 million Poles,[80] 1.3 million Ukrainians, 1 million Belarusians and 3.5 million Soviet prisoners of war.[81][77] German military casualties have been estimated at 5.3 million,[82] and around 900,000 German civilians died.[83] Around 12 million ethnic Germans were expelled from across Eastern Europe, and Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory.[84] East and West Germany Main article: History of Germany (1945–1990) American, Soviet, British, and French occupation zones in Germany and the French-controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line were transferred to Poland and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Conference.[85] After Nazi Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four occupation zones. The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik; DDR). They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany.[86] East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was temporary.[87] West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy". Starting in 1948 West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan.[88] Konrad Adenauer was elected the first Federal Chancellor of Germany in 1949. The country enjoyed prolonged economic growth (Wirtschaftswunder) beginning in the early 1950s.[89] West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community.[90] East Germany was an Eastern Bloc state under political and military control by the USSR via occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact. Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany, supported by the Stasi, an immense secret service.[91] While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity.[92] The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, prevented East German citizens from escaping to West Germany, becoming a symbol of the Cold War.[93] Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the late 1960s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik.[94] In 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open its border with Austria, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary and Austria. This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. In an effort to help retain East Germany as a state, the East German authorities eased border restrictions, but this actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process culminating in the Two Plus Four Treaty under which Germany regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990, with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.[95] The fall of the Wall in 1989 became a symbol of the Fall of Communism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, German Reunification and Die Wende.[96] Reunified Germany and the European Union Main articles: German reunification and History of Germany since 1990 The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate in the background United Germany was considered the enlarged continuation of West Germany so it retained its memberships in international organisations.[97] Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act (1994), Berlin again became the capital of Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries.[98] The relocation of the government was completed in 1999, and modernisation of the east German economy was scheduled to last until 2019.[99][100] Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union, signing the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2007,[101] and co-founding the Eurozone.[102] Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban.[103][104] In the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor. In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion stimulus plan.[105] Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0.[106] Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015: the country took in over a million migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states.[107] Geography Main article: Geography of Germany Physical map of Germany Germany is in Western and Central Europe, bordering Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, and Switzerland to the south-southwest. France, Luxembourg and Belgium are situated to the west, with the Netherlands to the northwest. Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. German territory covers 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 348,672 km2 (134,623 sq mi) of land and 8,350 km2 (3,224 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh-largest country in Europe, and the 62nd-largest country in the world.[4] Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,963 metres or 9,721 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: in the municipality Neuendorf-Sachsenbande, Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level[108]) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, and nickel.[4] Climate Most of Germany has a temperate climate, ranging from oceanic in the north to continental in the east and southeast. Winters range from cold in the southern Alps to mild and are generally overcast with limited precipitation, while summers can vary from hot and dry to cool and rainy. The northern regions have prevailing westerly winds that bring in moist air from the North Sea, moderating the temperature and increasing precipitation. Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures.[109] From February 2019 – 2020, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F) in January 2020 to a high of 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) in June 2019.[110] Average monthly precipitation ranged from 30 litres per square metre in February and April 2019 to 125 litres per square metre in February 2020.[111] Average monthly hours of sunshine ranged from 45 in November 2019 to 300 in June 2019.[112] The highest temperature ever recorded in Germany was 42.6 °C on 25 July 2019 in Lingen and the lowest was −37.8 °C on 12 February 1929 in Wolnzach.[113][114] Biodiversity Berchtesgaden National Park The territory of Germany can be divided into five terrestrial ecoregions: Atlantic mixed forests, Baltic mixed forests, Central European mixed forests, Western European broadleaf forests, and Alps conifer and mixed forests.[115] As of 2016 51% of Germany's land area is devoted to agriculture, while 30% is forested and 14% is covered by settlements or infrastructure.[116] Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. According to the National Forest Inventory, beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute just over 40% of the forests; roughly 60% are conifers, particularly spruce and pine.[117] There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.[118] The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol.[119] The 16 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park.[120] In addition, there are 17 Biosphere Reserves[121] and 105 nature parks.[122] More than 400 zoos and animal parks operate in Germany.[123] The Berlin Zoo, which opened in 1844, is the oldest in Germany, and claims the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.[124] Politics Main articles: Politics of Germany, Taxation in Germany, and Federal budget of Germany Frank-Walter Steinmeier - 2018 (cropped).jpg Angela Merkel 2019 (cropped).jpg Frank-Walter Steinmeier President Angela Merkel Chancellor Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. The Bundestag is elected through direct elections using the mixed-member proportional representation system. The members of the Bundesrat represent and are appointed by the governments of the sixteen federated states.[4] The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag and the Bundesrat; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law, are valid in perpetuity.[125] The president, currently Frank-Walter Steinmeier, is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.[4] The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (president of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.[126] The third-highest official and the head of government is the chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the party or coalition with the most seats in the Bundestag.[4] The chancellor, currently Angela Merkel, is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet.[4] Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party and the Alliance '90/The Greens have also been junior partners in coalition governments. Since 2007, the left-wing populist party The Left has been a staple in the German Bundestag, though they have never been part of the federal government. In the 2017 German federal election, the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.[127][128] Constituent states Main articles: States of Germany and Federalism in Germany Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer.[129] Each state has its own state constitution,[130] and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. As of 2017 Germany is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts.[131] Lower Saxony Lower SaxonyFree Hanseatic City of Bremen BremenHamburg HamburgMecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg- VorpommernSaxony-Anhalt Saxony- AnhaltSaxony SaxonyBrandenburg BrandenburgBerlin BerlinThuringia ThuringiaHesse HesseNorth Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine- WestphaliaRhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-PalatinateBavaria BavariaBaden-Württemberg Baden- WürttembergSaarland SaarlandSchleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein State Capital Area (km2)[132] Population (2018)[133] Nominal GDP billions EUR (2015)[134] Nominal GDP per capita EUR (2015)[134] Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart 35,751 11,069,533 461 42,800 Bavaria Munich 70,550 13,076,721 550 43,100 Berlin Berlin 892 3,644,826 125 35,700 Brandenburg Potsdam 29,654 2,511,917 66 26,500 Bremen Bremen 420 682,986 32 47,600 Hamburg Hamburg 755 1,841,179 110 61,800 Hesse Wiesbaden 21,115 6,265,809 264 43,100 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin 23,214 1,609,675 40 25,000 Lower Saxony Hanover 47,593 7,982,448 259 32,900 North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf 34,113 17,932,651 646 36,500 Rhineland-Palatinate Mainz 19,854 4,084,844 132 32,800 Saarland Saarbrücken 2,569 990,509 35 35,400 Saxony Dresden 18,416 4,077,937 113 27,800 Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg 20,452 2,208,321 57 25,200 Schleswig-Holstein Kiel 15,802 2,896,712 86 31,200 Thuringia Erfurt 16,202 2,143,145 57 26,400 Germany Berlin 357,386 83,019,213 3025 37,100 Law Main articles: Law of Germany, Judiciary of Germany, and Law enforcement in Germany Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.[135] The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.[136] Germany's supreme court system is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court.[137] Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public.[138] Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges.[139][140] Germany has a low murder rate with 1.18 murders per 100,000 as of 2016.[141] In 2018, the overall crime rate fell to its lowest since 1992.[142] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Germany Germany hosted the G20 summit in Hamburg, 7–8 July 2017.[143] Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad[144] and maintains relations with more than 190 countries.[145] Germany is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the IMF. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since 1990. Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.[146][147][148] The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies.[149] Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism.[150] The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.[151] It was the world's second biggest aid donor in 2019 after the United States.[152] Military Main article: Bundeswehr Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into the Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr (Joint Medical Service) and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 8th highest in the world.[153] In 2018, military spending was at $49.5 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%.[154] A German Navy Brandenburg-class frigate As of January 2020, the Bundeswehr has a strength of 184,001 active soldiers and 80,947 civilians.[155] Reservists are available to the armed forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad.[156] Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, but this has been officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service.[157][158] Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction.[159] According to SIPRI, Germany was the fourth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2014 to 2018.[160] In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.[161] The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. As of 2017, the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo.[162] Economy Main articles: Economy of Germany and Science and technology in Germany Frankfurt is a leading business centre in Europe and the seat of the European Central Bank.[163] Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation.[4][164][165] It is the world's third largest exporter of goods,[4] and has the largest national economy in Europe which is also the world's fourth largest by nominal GDP[166] and the fifth by PPP.[167] Its GDP per capita measured in purchasing power standards amounts to 121% of the EU27 average (100%).[168] The service sector contributes approximately 69% of the total GDP, industry 31%, and agriculture 1% as of 2017.[4] The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 3.2% as of January 2020, which is the fourth-lowest in the EU.[169] Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 450 million consumers.[170] In 2017, the country accounted for 28% of the Eurozone economy according to the International Monetary Fund.[171] Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro, in 2002.[172] Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt.[173][163] Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,[174] and is the fourth largest by production.[175] The top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics.[176] Germany is one of the largest exporters globally.[177] Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2019, the Fortune Global 500, 29 are headquartered in Germany.[178] 30 major Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index which is operated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange.[179] Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Bosch and Deutsche Telekom.[180] Berlin is a hub for startup companies and has become the leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union.[181] Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model.[182] These companies represent 48% global market leaders in their segments, labelled Hidden Champions.[183] Research and development efforts form an integral part of the German economy.[184] In 2018 Germany ranked fourth globally in terms of number of science and engineering research papers published.[185] Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, and the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Association.[186] Germany is the largest contributor to the European Space Agency.[187] Infrastructure Main articles: Transport in Germany, Energy in Germany, Telecommunications in Germany, and Water supply and sanitation in Germany An ICE 3 on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.[188] Its road network is among the densest in Europe.[189] The motorway (Autobahn) is widely known for having no federally mandated speed limit for some classes of vehicles.[190] The InterCityExpress or ICE train network serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph).[191] The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport.[192] The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world.[193] In 2015, Germany was the world's seventh-largest consumer of energy.[194] The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021.[195] It meets the country's power demands using 40% renewable sources.[196] Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, and water management.[197][198][199] The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%.[200] Nevertheless, the country's total greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2017.[201] The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.[202] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Germany Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of 2017, with 37.4 million visits.[203] Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.[204] Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over €105.3 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports 4.2 million jobs.[205] Germany's most visited and popular landmarks include Cologne Cathedral, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, the Dresden Frauenkirche, Neuschwanstein Castle, Heidelberg Castle, the Wartburg, and Sanssouci Palace.[206] The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.[207] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Germany and Germans With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census,[208] rising to 83.1 million as of 2019,[6] Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the nineteenth-most populous country in the world. Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females).[4] The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates) is below the replacement rate of 2.1 and is one of the lowest fertility rates in the world.[4] Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has exceeded its birth rate. However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants. Germany has the third oldest population in the world, with the average age of 47.4 years.[4] Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries:[209] There is a Danish minority in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein;[209] the Sorbs, a Slavic population, are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg; the Roma and Sinti live throughout the country; and the Frisians are concentrated in Schleswig-Holstein's western coast and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.[209] After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas. Of the country's residents, 18.6 million people (22.5%) were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates).[210] In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants.[211] As of 2018, Germany ranks fifth amongst EU countries in terms of the percentage of migrants in the country's population, at 12.9%.[212] Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions. The country's largest city is Berlin, while its largest urban area is the Ruhr.[213] vte Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany (31 December 2018) Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop. Berlin Berlin Hamburg Hamburg 1 Berlin Berlin 3,644,826 11 Bremen Bremen (state) 569,352 Munich Munich Cologne Cologne 2 Hamburg Hamburg 1,841,179 12 Dresden Saxony 554,649 3 Munich Bavaria 1,471,508 13 Hannover Lower Saxony 538,068 4 Cologne North Rhine-Westphalia 1,085,664 14 Nuremberg Bavaria 518,365 5 Frankfurt Hesse 753,056 15 Duisburg North Rhine-Westphalia 498,590 6 Stuttgart Baden-Württemberg 634,830 16 Bochum North Rhine-Westphalia 364,628 7 Düsseldorf North Rhine-Westphalia 619,294 17 Wuppertal North Rhine-Westphalia 354,382 8 Leipzig Saxony 587,857 18 Bielefeld North Rhine-Westphalia 333,786 9 Dortmund North Rhine-Westphalia 587,010 19 Bonn North Rhine-Westphalia 327,258 10 Essen North Rhine-Westphalia 583,109 20 Münster North Rhine-Westphalia 314,319 Religion Main article: Religion in Germany Cologne Cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The 2011 German Census showed Christianity as the largest religion in Germany, with 66.8% identified themselves as Christian, with 3.8% of those not being church members.[214] 31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen); 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%. According to data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively, of the population.[215][216] Islam is the second largest religion in the country.[217] In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question.[218] Most of the Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations. Other religions comprise less than one percent of Germany's population.[217] A study in 2018 estimated that 38% of the population are not members of any religious organization or denomination,[219] though up to a third may still consider themselves religious. Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before the enforcement of state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas.[220][221] Languages Main articles: German language and Languages of Germany German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.[222] It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union, and one of the three procedural languages of the European Commission.[223] German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.[224] Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two.[222] Education Main article: Education in Germany Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest institution of higher learning and generally counted among its most prestigious. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years.[225] Secondary schooling is divided into tracks based on whether students pursue academic or vocational education.[226] A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school.[225] This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world.[227] Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.[228] The general requirement for university is the Abitur. According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study.[229] The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg University (established in 1386) being the oldest.[230] The Humboldt University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many Western universities.[231][232] In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence. Health Main article: Healthcare in Germany The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.[233] Germany's system of hospitals, called Krankenhäuser, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s.[234] Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. The population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013.[235] In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care.[236] Germany ranked 20th in the world in 2013 in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births). In 2019, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 37%.[237] Obesity in Germany has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. A 2014 study showed that 52 percent of the adult German population was overweight or obese.[238] Culture Main article: Culture of Germany A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Dresden Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"),[239] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.[240] A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014.[241][242] Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices.[243][244] As of 2016 UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List.[245] There are a number of public holidays in Germany determined by each state; 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day).[246] Music Main article: Music of Germany Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel were influential composers of the Baroque period. Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras. Carl Maria von Weber, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms were significant Romantic composers. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Wolfgang Rihm are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.[247] As of 2013, Germany was the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.[248] German popular music of the 20th and 21st centuries includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, pop, Ostrock, heavy metal/rock, punk, pop rock, indie, Volksmusik (folk music), schlager pop and German hip hop. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.[249] DJs and artists of the techno and house music scenes of Germany have become well known (e.g. Paul van Dyk, Paul Kalkbrenner, and Scooter).[250] Art and design Main articles: German art, Architecture of Germany, and German fashion C.D. Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818) Franz Marc, Roe Deer in the Forest (1914) German painters have influenced western art. Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism. Several German art groups formed in the 20th century; Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) influenced the development of expressionism in Munich and Berlin. The New Objectivity arose in response to expressionism during the Weimar Republic. After World War II, broad trends in German art include neo-expressionism and the New Leipzig School.[251] Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser Renaissance).[251] Vernacular architecture in Germany is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles.[252] When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style. Expressionist architecture developed in the 1910s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius (New Objectivity), and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius.[251] Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century; he conceived of the glass façade skyscraper.[253] Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Pritzker Prize winners Gottfried Böhm and Frei Otto.[254] German designers became early leaders of modern product design.[255] The Berlin Fashion Week and the fashion trade fair Bread & Butter are held twice a year.[256] Literature and philosophy Main articles: German literature and German philosophy The Brothers Grimm collected and published popular German folk tales. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.[257] The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854.[258] Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass.[259] The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China.[260] The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years.[261] The Leipzig Book Fair also retains a major position in Europe.[262] German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School has been particularly influential.[263] Media Main articles: Media of Germany and Cinema of Germany The largest internationally operating media companies in Germany are the Bertelsmann enterprise, Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat.1 Media. Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households.[264] Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels.[265] There are more than 300 public and private radio stations in Germany; Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio and the public Deutsche Welle is the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages.[265] Germany's print market of newspapers and magazines is the largest in Europe.[265] The papers with the highest circulation are Bild, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Die Welt.[265] The largest magazines include ADAC Motorwelt and Der Spiegel.[265] Germany has a large video gaming market, with over 34 million players nationwide.[266] Babelsberg Studio near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895. The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world. Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film. After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film). East German film was dominated by state-owned film studio DEFA, while the dominant genre in West Germany was the Heimatfilm ("homeland film").[267] During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder brought West German auteur cinema to critical acclaim. The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Various Germans won an Oscar for their performances in other films. The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. The Berlin International Film Festival, known as "Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's leading film festivals. The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards.[268] Cuisine Main article: German cuisine Bavarian Bratwurst with mustard, a pretzel and beer German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share some traditions with Switzerland and Austria). International varieties such as pizza, sushi, Chinese food, Greek food, Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen).[269] German cheeses account for about 22% of all cheese produced in Europe.[270] In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany was either pork, chicken or beef. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1,500 varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.[271] Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions,[272] the national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal; 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world.[273] German beer purity regulations date back to the 16th century.[274] The 2018 Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, giving the country a cumulative total of 300 stars.[275] Sports Main article: Sport in Germany The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. With more than 7 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest single-sport organisation worldwide,[276] and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world.[277] The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014,[278] the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996,[279] and the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2017.[280] Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times (as of 2017). The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships.[281] Sebastian Vettel is also among the top five most successful Formula One drivers of all time.[282] Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count (when combining East and West German medals). Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 1936: the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.[283] Munich hosted the Summer Games of 1972.[284] See also flag Germany portal Index of Germany-related articles Outline of Germany Notes From 1952 to 1990, the entire "Deutschlandlied" was the national anthem, but only the third verse was sung on official occasions. Since 1991, the third verse alone has been the national anthem.[1] Berlin is the sole constitutional capital and de jure seat of government, but the former provisional capital of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn, has the special title of "federal city" (Bundesstadt) and is the primary seat of six ministries.[2] Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany, and Frisian are recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[3] The Federal Republic of Germany was proclaimed on the British, American and French occupation zones on 23 May 1949 while the German Democratic Republic was formed from the Soviet occupation zone on 7 October 1949. German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, About this soundlisten IPA transcription of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland": German pronunciation: [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant][10] References Bundespräsidialamt. "Repräsentation und Integration" (in German). Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016. "The German Federal Government". deutschland.de. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Gesley, Jenny (26 September 2018). "The Protection of Minority and Regional Languages in Germany". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 25 May 2020. "Germany". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 29 March 2020. "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020. "Bevölkerung nach Geschlecht und Staatsangehörigkeit". Destatis. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2018. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 March 2020. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. Retrieved 15 December 2020. "Human Development Report 2020". United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020. Mangold, Max, ed. (2005). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7. Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-674-80688-7. Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 699–704. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. (for diutisc). Lloyd, Albert L.; Lühr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 685–686. ISBN 978-3-525-20768-0. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. (for diot). Wagner, G. A; Krbetschek, M; Degering, D; Bahain, J.-J; Shao, Q; Falgueres, C; Voinchet, P; Dolo, J.-M; Garcia, T; Rightmire, G. P (27 August 2010). "Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany". PNAS. 107 (46): 19726–19730. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10719726W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012722107. PMC 2993404. PMID 21041630. Hendry, Lisa (5 May 2018). "Who were the Neanderthals?". Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. "Earliest music instruments found". BBC News. 25 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. "Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative sculpture". The Art Newspaper. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Conard, Nicholas (2009). "A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany". Nature. 459 (7244): 248–252. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..248C. doi:10.1038/nature07995. PMID 19444215. S2CID 205216692. "Nebra Sky Disc". UNESCO. 2013. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. "Germanic Tribes (Teutons)". History Files. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020. Claster, Jill N. (1982). Medieval Experience: 300–1400. New York University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8147-1381-5. Wells, Peter (2004). The Battle That Stopped Rome: Emperor Augustus, Arminius, and the Slaughter of th

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  37. Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehl 0 0 Хариу бичихUkuzibulala kuka

    0 0 Хариу бичих
  38. Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi babematasa kakhulu bezilungiselela ukuwa kwezwe noma bebalekela impi ukuze bathathe noma iyiphi inzalo. [423] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn Toland, ubuNazi "bavele njengebhamu" ngaphandle komholi wabo. [424] Izenzo zikaHitler kanye nemibono yamaNazi cishe kuthathwa njengeyokuziphatha okubi kakhulu; [425] ngokusho kukaKershaw, "Emlandweni akukaze kwenzeke ukonakala okunjalo — ngokomzimba nangokokuziphatha - kuhlanganiswe negama lomuntu oyedwa." [4] Uhlelo lwezombusazwe lukaHitler lwaletha impi yezwe, ishiya emuva i-Eastern and Central Europe ebhuqiwe futhi ehlwempu. IJalimane yabhujiswa ngokuphelele, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiStunde Null (iZero Hour). [426] Izinqubomgomo zikaHitler zabangela ukuhlupheka kwabantu ngezinga elingakaze libonwe; [427] ngokusho kukaR. J. Rummel, umbuso wamaNazi wawunomthelela ekubulaweni kwabantu ngokubulawa kwabantu abayizigidi eziyi-19.3 neziboshwa zempi. [346] Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasosha kanye nezakhamizi eziyizigidi ezingama-28.7 bafa ngenxa yesenzo sezempi e-European Theatre yeMpi Yezwe II. [346] Inani lezakhamizi ezabulawa ngesikhathi seMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba lalingakaze libonwe emlandweni wempi. [428] Izazi-mlando, izazi zefilosofi kanye nezombusazwe bavame ukusebenzisa igama elithi "okubi" ukuchaza umbuso wamaNazi. [429] Amazwe amaningi ase-Yuropu enze bobabili ubugebengu ukukhuthazwa kobuNazism nokwenqaba ukuQothulwa Kwesizwe. [430] Isazi-mlando uFriedrich Meinecke uchaze uHitler "njengesinye sezibonelo ezinkulu zamandla asebunyeni nangenakulinganiswa wobuntu empilweni yomlando". [431] Isazi-mlando saseNgilandi uHugh Trevor-Roper simbone "njengabanye 'babantu abenza izinto ezesabekayo' emlandweni, ohleleke kakhulu, onomlando kakhulu, wefilosofi kakhulu, kepha nokho umnqobi ononya, nononya, omncane kunabo bonke owake waziwa ngumhlaba". [432 ] Ngokwesazi-mlando uJohn M. Roberts, ukwehlulwa kukaHitler kwaphawula ukuphela kwesigaba somlando waseYurophu owawuphethwe yiJalimane. [433] Endaweni yayo kwavela iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, umbango womhlaba wonke phakathi kweWestern Bloc, owawuphethwe yi-United States nezinye izizwe ze-NATO, ne-Eastern Bloc, eyayiphethwe yiSoviet Union. [434] Isazi-mlando uSebastian Haffner uqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphandle kukaHitler nokufuduswa kwamaJuda, izwe lesizwe lanamuhla lakwa-Israyeli belingeke libe khona. Uthi ngaphandle kukaHitler, ukususwa kwamakoloni emikhakheni eyethonya yaseYurophu ngabe kuhlehlisiwe. [435] Ngaphezu kwalokho, uHaffner uthi ngaphandle kuka-Alexander the Great, uHitler waba nomthelela omkhulu ukwedlula noma yimuphi omunye umuntu ongumlando ongaqhathaniswa, ngoba naye wabangela uguquko oluningi lomhlaba wonke esikhathini esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa. [436]Ukuzibulala kukaHitler kwafaniswa nabantu besikhathi sakhe "nokuphulwa" kokuphulwa. [421] [422] Ukwesekwa komphakathi kuHitler kwase kudilikile ngesikhathi sokufa kwakhe futhi amaJalimane ambalwa akhalela ukudlula kwakhe; UKershaw uthi iningi lezakhamizi kanye nabezempi bab